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Foods 2018, 7(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7070115

Encapsulation of Citrus By-Product Extracts by Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Using Combinations of Maltodextrin with Soybean Protein and ι-Carrageenan

1
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, P.O. Box 127, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
2
NSW Department of Primary Industries, Locked Bag 26, Gosford, NSW 2250, Australia
3
Division of Food and Drink, School of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of Abertay, Dundee DD1 1HG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract

The effect of different combinations of maltodextrin (MD) coating agents (MD, MD + soybean protein, and MD + ι-carrageenan) on the encapsulation of lemon by-product aqueous extracts using freeze-drying and spray-drying were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the microparticles were evaluated. Freeze-drying with the mixture of MD + soybean protein resulted in the highest retention of TPC, TFC, and FRAP (1.66 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g d.b., 0.43 ± 0.02 mg CE/g d.b., and 3.70 ± 0.05 mM TE/g, respectively). Freeze-drying resulted in microparticles with lower moisture content (MC) and water activity (aw) than those produced by spray-drying. Specifically, the MC and aw of the microparticles produced by freeze-drying ranged from 1.15 to 2.15% and 0.13 to 0.14, respectively, while the MC and aw of the microparticles produced by spray-drying ranged from 6.06% to 6.60% and 0.33 to 0.40, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that spray-drying resulted in the formation of spherical particles of different sizes regardless of the type of coating agent. Although freeze-drying resulted in microparticles with amorphous glassy shapes, the mixture of MD + soybean protein resulted in the formation of spherical porous particles. X-ray diffraction revealed a low degree of crystallinity for the samples produced by both techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus by-products; encapsulation; phenolic compounds; antioxidant capacity; polysaccharides; protein citrus by-products; encapsulation; phenolic compounds; antioxidant capacity; polysaccharides; protein
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Papoutsis, K.; Golding, J.B.; Vuong, Q.; Pristijono, P.; Stathopoulos, C.E.; Scarlett, C.J.; Bowyer, M. Encapsulation of Citrus By-Product Extracts by Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Using Combinations of Maltodextrin with Soybean Protein and ι-Carrageenan. Foods 2018, 7, 115.

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