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Foods 2017, 6(2), 13; doi:10.3390/foods6020013

Identification of the Geographic Origin of Parmigiano Reggiano (P.D.O.) Cheeses Deploying Non-Targeted Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics

1
Food Consulting Services, 2 Chemin des Mouilles, 69290 Grezieu la Varenne, France
2
R&D Department, Italy Mérieux NutriSciences, via Fratta 25, 31023 Resana, Italy
3
R&D Department, Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese Consortium, Via J. F. Kennedy 18, 42124 Reggio Emilia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Saskia van Ruth and Daniel Granato
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 30 January 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Identity, Authenticity and Fraud: The Full Spectrum)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2557 KB, uploaded 16 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Parmigiano Reggiano is an Italian product with a protected designation of origin (P.D.O.). It is an aged hard cheese made from raw milk. P.D.O. products are protected by European regulations. Approximately 3 million wheels are produced each year, and the product attracts a relevant premium price due to its quality and all around the world well known typicity. Due to the high demand that exceeds the production, several fraudulent products can be found on the market. The rate of fraud is estimated between 20% and 40%, the latter predominantly in the grated form. We have developed a non-target method based on Liquid Chomatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) that allows the discrimination of Parmigiano Reggiano from non-authentic products with milk from different geographical origins or products, where other aspects of the production process do not comply with the rules laid down in the production specifications for Parmeggiano Reggiano. Based on a database created with authentic samples provided by the Consortium of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese, a reliable classification model was built. The overall classification capabilities of this non-targeted method was verified on 32 grated cheese samples. The classification was 87.5% accurate. View Full-Text
Keywords: P.D.O.; Parmigiano Reggiano cheese; geographical origin; non-targeted mass spectrometry; chemometrics P.D.O.; Parmigiano Reggiano cheese; geographical origin; non-targeted mass spectrometry; chemometrics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Popping, B.; De Dominicis, E.; Dante, M.; Nocetti, M. Identification of the Geographic Origin of Parmigiano Reggiano (P.D.O.) Cheeses Deploying Non-Targeted Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics. Foods 2017, 6, 13.

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