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Foods 2017, 6(4), 26; doi:10.3390/foods6040026

Characterization of Retail Conventional, Organic, and Grass Full-Fat Butters by Their Fat Contents, Free Fatty Acid Contents, and Triglyceride and Fatty Acid Profiling

1
RIKILT Wageningen Research, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Food Quality and Design, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel Granato
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Identity, Authenticity and Fraud: The Full Spectrum)
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Abstract

In the Netherlands, butter is produced from milk originating from three different production systems: conventional, organic, and grass-fed cows. The aim of the current study was to characterize these types of butters, and pinpoint distinct compositional differences. Retail conventional (n = 28), organic (n = 14), and grass (n = 12) full-fat butters were collected during the winter and summer seasons. Samples were analyzed for their fat content, free fatty acid (FFA) content, and triglyceride (TG) and fatty acid (FA) profiles. The fat content was significantly lower in conventional butters than in organic butters and the FFA content was significantly lower in conventional butters compared with grass butters. Also, organic butters differed significantly from their conventional counterparts with regard to their TG and FA profiles. The TG profiles of the organic and grass butters did not differ significantly. The FA profiles of grass butters were less distinct, since only a few FAs differed significantly from conventional (six FAs) and organic (eight FAs) butters. View Full-Text
Keywords: authenticity; butter; fat content; free fatty acids; fatty acid composition; grass; organic; triglyceride profile authenticity; butter; fat content; free fatty acids; fatty acid composition; grass; organic; triglyceride profile
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pustjens, A.M.; Boerrigter-Eenling, R.; Koot, A.H.; Rozijn, M.; van Ruth, S.M. Characterization of Retail Conventional, Organic, and Grass Full-Fat Butters by Their Fat Contents, Free Fatty Acid Contents, and Triglyceride and Fatty Acid Profiling. Foods 2017, 6, 26.

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