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Foods 2016, 5(4), 77; doi:10.3390/foods5040077

Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications

1
Laboratory of Biomedical Genomics and Oncogenetics, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia
2
Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad, Pakistan
3
Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Biomathematics and Biostatistics (BIMS), Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia
4
National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (INSAT), University of Carthage, 1080 Tunis, Tunisia
5
Laboratoire de Biomathématiques, Faculté des Sciences de Saint-Jérôme, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseilles, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Saskia van Ruth
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Identity, Authenticity and Fraud: The Full Spectrum)

Abstract

Background. Olive oils (OOs) show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends’ preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i) characterization by specific markers; (ii) authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii) monitoring by traceability analysis. Methods. These quality control and management aims require the use of several multivariate statistical tools: specificity highlighting requires ordination methods; authentication checking calls for classification and pattern recognition methods; traceability analysis implies the use of network-based approaches able to separate or extract mixed information and memorized signals from complex matrices. Results. This chapter presents a review of different chemometrics methods applied for the control of OO variability from metabolic and physical-chemical measured characteristics. The different chemometrics methods are illustrated by different study cases on monovarietal and blended OO originated from different countries. Conclusion. Chemometrics tools offer multiple ways for quantitative evaluations and qualitative control of complex chemical variability of OO in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemometrical methods; olive field; blends; quality control; ordination; clustering; pattern recognition; prediction; chromatographic profiles; spectral data chemometrical methods; olive field; blends; quality control; ordination; clustering; pattern recognition; prediction; chromatographic profiles; spectral data
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MDPI and ACS Style

Messai, H.; Farman, M.; Sarraj-Laabidi, A.; Hammami-Semmar, A.; Semmar, N. Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications. Foods 2016, 5, 77.

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