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Foods 2017, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/foods6010003

Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers

1
Department of Characterization, Quality, and Safety, Institute of Food Science, Technology, and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Products, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 2 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Modelling)
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Abstract

An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0) of chickpea flour (CF)-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP), xanthan gum (XG), inulin (INL), and their blends) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF) substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ◦C to 90 ◦C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n), frequency factor (k0), and activation energy (Ea)) using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt) versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-free; chickpea flour; non-isothermal heating; elastic modulus; reaction kinetics; activation energy; gelatinization; food process modeling gluten-free; chickpea flour; non-isothermal heating; elastic modulus; reaction kinetics; activation energy; gelatinization; food process modeling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alvarez, M.D.; Cuesta, F.J.; Herranz, B.; Canet, W. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers. Foods 2017, 6, 3.

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