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Foods 2017, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/foods6010005

Evaluation of the Availability and Antioxidant Capacity of Maillard Compounds Present in Bread Crust: Studies in Caco-2 Cells

1
Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Animal Nutrition (EEZ-CSIC), Camino del Jueves, 18100 Granada, Spain
3
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, ICTAN-CSIC, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mario Estévez
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract

Bread crust is one of the major contributors to the intake of Maillard reaction products (MRP). MRP improve the organoleptic properties of foods and can provide biological actions such as antioxidant properties. The transport and availability of Amadori compounds (measured as furosine) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)—early and intermediary MRP—from enzymatically digested bread crust (BC) and from its soluble low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions were investigated in the Caco-2 cell line. The absorption of the early and final MRP pool was tested by measuring the absorbance recovery (280 and 420 nm). The ability of soluble BC or its fractions to lessen the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined. Amadori compounds (furosine) were transported across Caco-2 cell monolayers from the soluble BC in percentages ranging between 40% and 56%; the lower amount of the compound supplied, the higher transport rate. However, HMF transport rate (35%) was unaffected by the initial amount of the compound. Amadori compounds and HMF contained in the LMW fraction were more efficiently transported than those present in the HMW fraction, suggesting improved absorption when supplied as free forms or linked to LMW compounds. Absorbance recovery at 280 nm was higher from the LMW fraction, whereas higher recovery was detected for the HMW fraction at 420 nm. The digested BC—but not its isolated fractions—was able to significantly reduce ROS production at basal conditions and after subjecting cells to an oxidant. A clear positive action of BC on the antioxidant defence is manifested, seemingly attributable to the combined presence of soluble LMW and HMW products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Amadori compounds; hydroxymethylfurfural; bread crust; Maillard reaction products (MRP); Caco-2 cells; availability; reactive oxygen species (ROS); protective action Amadori compounds; hydroxymethylfurfural; bread crust; Maillard reaction products (MRP); Caco-2 cells; availability; reactive oxygen species (ROS); protective action
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

de la Cueva, S.P.; Seiquer, I.; Mesías, M.; Rufián-Henares, J.Á.; Delgado-Andrade, C. Evaluation of the Availability and Antioxidant Capacity of Maillard Compounds Present in Bread Crust: Studies in Caco-2 Cells. Foods 2017, 6, 5.

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