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Separations 2017, 4(2), 18; doi:10.3390/separations4020018

Recent Advances in Microextraction Techniques of Antipsychotics in Biological Fluids Prior to Liquid Chromatography Analysis

Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan F. García-Reyes
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Microextraction Techniques for Sample Preparation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [840 KB, uploaded 12 May 2017]   |  


Antipsychotic drugs are a class of psychiatric medication worldwide used to treat psychotic symptoms principally in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other psycho-organic disorders. The traditional sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid phase extraction (SPE), which were widely used, tend to have many drawbacks because they include complicated, time-consuming steps and they require large sample size as well large amounts of organic solvent. Therefore, due to the modern analytical requirements, such as miniaturization, automation and reduction of solvent volume and time, many microextraction procedures have been developed. In this review we aim to present an overview of those techniques which are used prior to liquid chromatography analyses both for forensic toxicology in different biological matrices as well as for therapeutic drug monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: antipsychotics; pharmaceuticals; microextraction; biofluids; HPLC; SPME; MEPS; LPME antipsychotics; pharmaceuticals; microextraction; biofluids; HPLC; SPME; MEPS; LPME

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Manousi, N.; Raber, G.; Papadoyannis, I. Recent Advances in Microextraction Techniques of Antipsychotics in Biological Fluids Prior to Liquid Chromatography Analysis. Separations 2017, 4, 18.

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