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Separations 2016, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/chromatography3010001

Determination of Morphine and Its Metabolites in Human Urine by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection Employing On-Column Labeling with a New Boronic Acid Functionalized Squarylium Cyanine Dye

1
Chemistry Department, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109, USA
2
Medicinal Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Sharkia 44519, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Timothy Strein
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrophoretic Analyses in Capillaries and Microfluidic Devices)
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Abstract

A novel method for the labeling and rapid separation of morphine, morphine-3-beta-d-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-beta-d-glucuronide (M6G) in human urine employing a new boronic acid functionalized squarylium dye (SQ-BA3) and capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) is described. The spectrochemical properties, solution stability, pH range, and mechanisms for interactions with morphine and its metabolites were first established for SQ-BA3, followed by optimization of an on-column labeling procedure and CE-LIF method. SQ-BA3 itself was shown to be unstable and weakly fluorescent in aqueous buffers due to aggregate formation. However, SQ-BA3 showed a relative stability and dramatic increase in fluorescence intensity upon the addition of morphine, M3G, and M6G. Because of the low background fluorescence of this dye, on-column labeling was feasible, leading to a simple and rapid analytical method with the potential for clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: morphine; morphine-3-beta-d-glucuronide; morphine-6-beta-d-glucuronide; boronic acid; squarylium dye; on-column labeling; fluorescence; capillary electrophoresis morphine; morphine-3-beta-d-glucuronide; morphine-6-beta-d-glucuronide; boronic acid; squarylium dye; on-column labeling; fluorescence; capillary electrophoresis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sebaiy, M.M.; El-Shanawany, A.A.; Baraka, M.M.; Abdel-Aziz, L.M.; Isbell, T.A.; Colyer, C.L. Determination of Morphine and Its Metabolites in Human Urine by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection Employing On-Column Labeling with a New Boronic Acid Functionalized Squarylium Cyanine Dye. Separations 2016, 3, 1.

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