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Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 70-117; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3020070

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Chemically Modified Electrodes Used as Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

DeFENS, University of Milan, via Celoria 2, Milan (I) 20133, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Academic Editors: Michael Ongaro and Paolo Ugo
Received: 3 December 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
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Abstract

The characterization of chemically modified sensors and biosensors is commonly performed by cyclic voltammetry and electron microscopies, which allow verifying electrode mechanisms and surface morphologies. Among other techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) plays a unique role in giving access to qualitative, quantitative/semi-quantitative and speciation information concerning the sensor surface. Nevertheless, XPS remains rather underused in this field. The aim of this paper is to review selected articles which evidence the useful performances of XPS in characterizing the top surface layers of chemically modified sensors and biosensors. A concise introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy gives to the reader the essential background. The application of XPS for characterizing sensors suitable for food and environmental analysis is highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemically modified sensors; biosensors; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; surface analysis of electrodes; electrocatalysis chemically modified sensors; biosensors; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; surface analysis of electrodes; electrocatalysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Desimoni, E.; Brunetti, B. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Chemically Modified Electrodes Used as Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review. Chemosensors 2015, 3, 70-117.

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