Next Article in Journal
Remote Care Technology: A Systematic Review of Reviews and Meta-Analyses
Previous Article in Journal
Utilization of Blended Waste Materials in Bricks
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010021

Surface Modification of Polystyrene with O Atoms Produced Downstream from an Ar/O2 Microwave Plasma

1
Plasma Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA
2
Xerox Analytical Services, Xerox Corporation, Webster, NY 14580, USA
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Plasma Processing of Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2287 KB, uploaded 9 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Because discarded polystyrene (PS) is little affected by degrading agents, PS was treated with a remote microwave (MW) plasma discharge of an Ar/O2 mixture in the absence of radiation to increase wettability and introduce functional groups which make the waste more liable to degradation and useful for technological applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) detected decreases in the aromatic sp2 and aliphatic sp3 carbons with treatment and, initially, increases in C–O and carbonyl groups, present in the formation of ethers, epoxides, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. At longer treatment times, ester, O–C=O; carbonate-like, O–(C=O)–O; and anhydride, O=C–O–C=O; moieties are observed with an overall oxygen saturation level of 23.6 ± 0.9 at% O. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements detected little change in surface roughness with treatment time. Advancing water contact angle decreased by ca. 50% compared to pristine PS indicating an increase in hydrophilicity because of oxidation. Washing the treated samples in deionized water decreased the oxygen concentrations at the saturation treatment times down to 18.6 ± 1 at% O due to the washing away of a weak boundary layer. View Full-Text
Keywords: polystyrene; microwave plasma of Ar/O2; XPS; surface modification; AFM; water contact angle; hydrophilicity polystyrene; microwave plasma of Ar/O2; XPS; surface modification; AFM; water contact angle; hydrophilicity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Lu, F.; Cocca, M.; Vega, K.; Fleischer, A.; Bailey, A.; Toro, M.; Sachdev, S.; Debies, T.; Mehan, M.; Gupta, S.K.; Takacs, G.A. Surface Modification of Polystyrene with O Atoms Produced Downstream from an Ar/O2 Microwave Plasma. Technologies 2018, 6, 21.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Technologies EISSN 2227-7080 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top