Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Technologies, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) We present a methodology for movement recognition in hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-36
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview A Review on Nano-Scale Precipitation in Steels
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010036
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nano-scale precipitation strengthened steels have drawn increasing attention from the materials community recently due to their excellent mechanical behaviors at room temperature, high specific strength to weight ratio, superior radiation resistivity, good weldability, and many more to mention. With the advent of technology,
[...] Read more.
Nano-scale precipitation strengthened steels have drawn increasing attention from the materials community recently due to their excellent mechanical behaviors at room temperature, high specific strength to weight ratio, superior radiation resistivity, good weldability, and many more to mention. With the advent of technology, such as synchrotron X-ray, atom probe tomography (APT), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), probing precipitates down to the atomic level has been made possible. In this paper, various nano-scale precipitate strengthened steels are compiled with the aim to identify the effects of size and number density of precipitates on the mechanical properties. Besides, the strengthening mechanisms, slip systems, and dislocation-precipitate interactions are reviewed. Moreover, the nucleation and stability of precipitates are also discussed. Finally, the challenges and future directions of the nano-scale precipitate strengthened steels are explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Innovations in Materials Processing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Spiral Mobility Based on Optimized Clustering for Optimal Data Extraction in WSNs
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010035
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have led to tremendous growth in the development of sensor technology and offer numerous applications, such as wildlife monitoring, environment, healthcare, military surveillance and security systems. In terms of performance, the evolutions of WSN routing protocols play a vital
[...] Read more.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have led to tremendous growth in the development of sensor technology and offer numerous applications, such as wildlife monitoring, environment, healthcare, military surveillance and security systems. In terms of performance, the evolutions of WSN routing protocols play a vital role in extending the lifetime of networking operations. Due to the limited resources of power in sensor nodes, the design and implementation of an energy-efficient routing protocol comprise a key challenge for researchers. Before, in the case of a static sink, nodes at farther areas from the sink transmit their sensed data at a longer transmission range and die early, while nearby nodes face lesser transmission costs and stay alive for a longer period. This unbalanced energy distribution creates energy holes in ares far from the sink in WSNs. Mobility-based sink routing protocols are proposed to minimize the sub-optimal energy consumption in WSNs, as the sink mobility covers the sensor field, which alleviates the overall load-balancing among sensor nodes. In order to overcome the energy hole issue while prolonging the network lifetime, it is important to determine the optimal mobility pattern. In this regard, we propose the Spiral Mobility based on Optimized Clustering (SMOC) routing protocol and the Multiple sink-based SMOC (M-SMOC) routing protocol for large-scale WSNs. Performance evaluations of the proposed protocols are compared with various existing routing protocols based on static sink, random mobility and grid mobility. Different numbers of performance parameters are considered for evaluation, such as network lifetime, network stability, packet drop ratio, packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, average energy consumption, network connection time and the impact of different heterogeneity levels. Experimental results show the benefits of the spiral mobility pattern and how it improves the network lifetime and stability period over the existing state-of-the-art routing protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communication Technologies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Hybrid Approach for Technology Selection in the Information Technology Industry
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010034
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-tech companies are rapidly growing in the world. Research and development (hereafter R&D) department strength is the main asset that allows a firm to achieve a competitive advantage in high-tech businesses. The allocated budget to this sector is finite; thus, integration, human resource,
[...] Read more.
High-tech companies are rapidly growing in the world. Research and development (hereafter R&D) department strength is the main asset that allows a firm to achieve a competitive advantage in high-tech businesses. The allocated budget to this sector is finite; thus, integration, human resource, risk and budget limitations should be considered to choose the most valuable project in the best portion of time. This paper investigates a case study from a high-tech company in Iran to prioritize the most attractive technologies for the R&D department. The case consists of twenty three technology options and the goal is to find the most attractive projects to sort them out for implementation in the R&D department. In this research, scholars proposed the best–worst method (henceforth BWM) to find the weight of the criteria of the attractive technologies in first step and utilize the newly developed method total area based on orthogonal vectors (henceforward TAOV) to sort the selected technologies based upon the identified criteria. Project integration is one of the least-noticed subjects in scientific papers; therefore, the researchers presented a zero or one linear programming (ZOLP) model to optimize and schedule the implementation procedure on the project risk, budget and time limitation simultaneously. The results indicate that starting few but attractive projects in the first years and postponing the rest to the future, helps a firm to manage funds and gain profit with the least amount of risk. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessProtocol Technology-Supported Group Activity to Promote Communication in Dementia: A Protocol for a Within-Participants Study
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010033
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Computer Interactive Reminiscence and Conversation Aid (CIRCA)is an interactive conversation support for people living with dementia. CIRCA facilitates one-to-one conversations and caregiving relationships in formal care environments. Originally developed as a standalone device, a new web-based version of CIRCA has been created to
[...] Read more.
Computer Interactive Reminiscence and Conversation Aid (CIRCA)is an interactive conversation support for people living with dementia. CIRCA facilitates one-to-one conversations and caregiving relationships in formal care environments. Originally developed as a standalone device, a new web-based version of CIRCA has been created to increase availability. The potential of CIRCA to support group activities and conversation between people living with dementia and a facilitator has not previously been explored. The two objectives of this study are (i) to validate the new web-based version of CIRCA against the original standalone device, and (ii) to explore the efficacy of CIRCA in supporting group activity for people with dementia in a formal care setting. This mixed-methods study comprises two parts: (i) an eight-session group activity using the CIRCA stand-alone device, and (ii) an eight-session group activity using the web-based CIRCA. One hundred and eighty people with dementia will be recruited: 90 for part (i) and 90 for part (ii). Measures of cognition and quality of life will be taken at the baseline, post-CIRCA intervention, and three months later, plus video recordings of the group sessions. Both parts of the study will be completed by June 2018. The study will provide evidence on two issues: (i) a validation of the new web-based version of CIRCA, and (ii) the suitability of CIRCA to support group activities in formal care settings for people living with dementia. This protocol is an extended version of the short paper presented at the AAATE 2017 conference and published in Studies in Health Technology & Informatics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AAATE2017 Congress)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Socially Assistive Robotics: Robot Exercise Trainer for Older Adults
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010032
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
PDF Full-text (3479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physical activities have tremendous benefit to older adults. A report from the World Health Organization has mentioned that lack of physical activity contributed to around 3.2 million premature deaths annually worldwide. Research also shows that regular exercise helps the older adults by improving
[...] Read more.
Physical activities have tremendous benefit to older adults. A report from the World Health Organization has mentioned that lack of physical activity contributed to around 3.2 million premature deaths annually worldwide. Research also shows that regular exercise helps the older adults by improving their physical fitness, immune system, sleep and stress levels, not to mention the countless health problems it reduces such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, obesity, joint pains, etc. The research reported in this paper is introducing a Socially Assistive Robot (SAR) that will engage, coach, assess and motivate the older adults in physical exercises that are recommended by the National Health Services (NHS) in the UK. With the rise in the population of older adults, which is expected to triple by 2050, this SAR will aim to improve the quality of life for a significant proportion of the population. To assess the proposed robot exercise trainer, user’s observational evaluation with 17 participants is conducted. Participants are generally happy with the proposed platform as a mean of encouraging them to do regular exercise correctly. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Dance Pose Identification from Motion Capture Data: A Comparison of Classifiers
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010031
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we scrutinize the effectiveness of classification techniques in recognizing dance types based on motion-captured human skeleton data. In particular, the goal is to identify poses which are characteristic for each dance performed, based on information on body joints, acquired by
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we scrutinize the effectiveness of classification techniques in recognizing dance types based on motion-captured human skeleton data. In particular, the goal is to identify poses which are characteristic for each dance performed, based on information on body joints, acquired by a Kinect sensor. The datasets used include sequences from six folk dances and their variations. Multiple pose identification schemes are applied using temporal constraints, spatial information, and feature space distributions for the creation of an adequate training dataset. The obtained results are evaluated and discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Development of a Resilient 3-D Printer for Humanitarian Crisis Response
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010030
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapid manufacturing using 3-D printing is a potential solution to some of the most pressing issues for humanitarian logistics. In this paper, findings are reported from a study that involved development of a new type of 3-D printer. In particular, a novel 3-D
[...] Read more.
Rapid manufacturing using 3-D printing is a potential solution to some of the most pressing issues for humanitarian logistics. In this paper, findings are reported from a study that involved development of a new type of 3-D printer. In particular, a novel 3-D printer that is designed specifically for reliable rapid manufacturing at the sites of humanitarian crises. First, required capabilities are developed with design elements of a humanitarian 3-D printer, which include, (1) fused filament fabrication, (2) open source self-replicating rapid prototyper design, (3) modular, (4) separate frame, (5) protected electronics, (6) on-board computing, (7) flexible power supply, and (8) climate control mechanisms. The technology is then disclosed with an open source license for the Kijenzi 3-D Printer. A swarm of five Kijenzi 3-D printers are evaluated for rapid part manufacturing for two months at health facilities and other community locations in both rural and urban areas throughout Kisumu County, Kenya. They were successful for their ability to function independently of infrastructure, transportability, ease of use, ability to withstand harsh environments and costs. The results are presented and conclusions are drawn about future work necessary for the Kijenzi 3-D Printer to meet the needs of rapid manufacturing in a humanitarian context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Manufacturing Technologies)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial Editorial for the Special Issue “Personal Health and Wellbeing Intelligent Systems Based on Wearable and Mobile Technologies”
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010029
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wearable and mobile personal devices, from smart phones, bands, glasses, and watches to smart clothes and implants, are becoming increasingly ubiquitous [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle User’s Emotions and Usability Study of a Brain-Computer Interface Applied to People with Cerebral Palsy
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010028
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
PDF Full-text (3206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
People with motor and communication disorders face serious challenges in interacting with computers. To enhance this functionality, new human-computer interfaces are being studied. In this work, a brain-computer interface based on the Emotiv Epoc is used to analyze human-computer interactions in cases of
[...] Read more.
People with motor and communication disorders face serious challenges in interacting with computers. To enhance this functionality, new human-computer interfaces are being studied. In this work, a brain-computer interface based on the Emotiv Epoc is used to analyze human-computer interactions in cases of cerebral palsy. The Phrase-Composer software was developed to interact with the brain-computer interface. A system usability evaluation was carried out with the participation of three specialists from The Fundação Catarinense de Educação especial (FCEE) and four cerebral palsy volunteers. Even though the System Usability Scale (SUS) score was acceptable, several challenges remain. Raw electroencephalography (EEG) data were also analyzed in order to assess the user’s emotions during their interaction with the communication device. This study brings new evidences about human-computer interaction related to individuals with cerebral palsy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Risks of Stigmatisation Resulting from Assistive Technologies for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010027
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assistive technologies (ATs) are currently being developed for cohorts of vulnerable people, including persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper focuses on the risks that the development of ATs for persons with ASD might lead to increased risks of stigmatisation. Firstly, we
[...] Read more.
Assistive technologies (ATs) are currently being developed for cohorts of vulnerable people, including persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper focuses on the risks that the development of ATs for persons with ASD might lead to increased risks of stigmatisation. Firstly, we assess the ways in which the use of ATs might result in the stigmatisation of users, alongside the corollary question of risks associated with a refusal to use ATs in the event of their being socially expected. Secondly, we focus on the question of whether the “project” of developing ATs for persons with ASD is itself stigmatising, and whether the “project” risks stigmatising persons with ASD by offering “cures”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AAATE2017 Congress)
Open AccessArticle A Low-Complexity Model-Free Approach for Real-Time Cardiac Anomaly Detection Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis and Nonparametric Control Charts
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010026
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While the importance of continuous monitoring of electrocardiographic (ECG) or photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals to detect cardiac anomalies is generally accepted in preventative medicine, there remain numerous challenges to its widespread adoption. Most notably, difficulties arise regarding crucial characteristics such as real-time capability, computational
[...] Read more.
While the importance of continuous monitoring of electrocardiographic (ECG) or photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals to detect cardiac anomalies is generally accepted in preventative medicine, there remain numerous challenges to its widespread adoption. Most notably, difficulties arise regarding crucial characteristics such as real-time capability, computational complexity, the amount of required training data, and the avoidance of too-restrictive modeling assumptions. We propose a lightweight and model-free approach for the online detection of cardiac anomalies such as ectopic beats in ECG or PPG signals on the basis of the change detection capabilities of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and nonparametric rank-based cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts. The procedure is able to quickly detect anomalies without requiring the identification of fiducial points such as R-peaks, and it is computationally significantly less demanding than previously proposed SSA-based approaches. Therefore, the proposed procedure is equally well suited for standalone use and as an add-on to complement existing (e.g., heart rate (HR) estimation) procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Monitoring Technologies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Additive Manufacturing of a 316L Steel Matrix Composite Reinforced with CeO2 Particles: Process Optimization by Adjusting the Laser Scanning Speed
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010025
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (18493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthesis of novel materials by additive manufacturing requires the optimization of the processing parameters in order to obtain fully-dense defect-free specimens. This step is particularly important for processing of composite materials, where the addition of a second phase may significantly alter the
[...] Read more.
The synthesis of novel materials by additive manufacturing requires the optimization of the processing parameters in order to obtain fully-dense defect-free specimens. This step is particularly important for processing of composite materials, where the addition of a second phase may significantly alter the melting and solidification steps. In this work, a composite consisting of a 316L steel matrix and 5 vol.% CeO2 particles was fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The SLM parameters leading to a defect-free 316L matrix are not suitable for the production of 316L/CeO2 composite specimens. However, highly-dense composite samples can be synthesized by carefully adjusting the laser scanning speed, while keeping the other parameters constant. The addition of the CeO2 reinforcement does not alter phase formation, but it affects the microstructure of the composite, which is significantly refined compared with the unreinforced 316L material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Manufacturing Technologies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Fuzzy Logic and Regression Approaches for Adaptive Sampling of Multimedia Traffic in Wireless Computer Networks
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010024
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
PDF Full-text (3135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organisations such as hospitals and the public are increasingly relying on large computer networks to access information and to communicate multimedia-type data. To assess the effectiveness of these networks, the traffic parameters need to be analysed. Due to the quantity of the data
[...] Read more.
Organisations such as hospitals and the public are increasingly relying on large computer networks to access information and to communicate multimedia-type data. To assess the effectiveness of these networks, the traffic parameters need to be analysed. Due to the quantity of the data packets, examining each packet’s transmission parameters is not practical, especially in real time. Sampling techniques allow a subset of packets that accurately represents the original traffic to be examined and they are thus important in evaluating the performance of multimedia networks. In this study, an adaptive sampling technique based on regression and a fuzzy inference system was developed. The technique dynamically updates the number of packets sampled by responding to the traffic’s variations. Its performance was found to be superior to the conventional nonadaptive sampling methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AAATE2017 Congress)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Geometric Modeling of the Machine for Cutting Cane and Other Aquatic Plants in Navigable Waterways by Agustín de Betancourt y Molina
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010023
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
PDF Full-text (9390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents the steps followed to obtain a three-dimensional model of one of the most recognized historical inventions of Agustín de Betancourt y Molina from the scant documentation found about it. Specifically, this was a machine for cutting cane and other aquatic
[...] Read more.
This article presents the steps followed to obtain a three-dimensional model of one of the most recognized historical inventions of Agustín de Betancourt y Molina from the scant documentation found about it. Specifically, this was a machine for cutting cane and other aquatic plants in navigable waterways, presented in London in 1795. The study is based on computer-aided design (CAD) techniques using Autodesk Inventor Professional, from the information provided by the only two sheets that exist from the machine, one with specifications in English and the other in French, both very similar. In order to obtain a functional result on which to carry out further studies, it has been necessary to make some geometrical hypotheses on the models, aimed to find the correct dimension of each element. In addition, it has also been necessary to define the relationship of each element with those that set up its environment, defining movement restrictions, so that the final model, behaves as real as possible. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Remote Care Technology: A Systematic Review of Reviews and Meta-Analyses
Technologies 2018, 6(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6010022
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objectives—To identify the technologies that are being used in the remote care of patients with chronic conditions, and their most relevant outcomes. Methods—A systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses. Results—Fifty-one systematic reviews and meta-analyses related to diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary
[...] Read more.
Objectives—To identify the technologies that are being used in the remote care of patients with chronic conditions, and their most relevant outcomes. Methods—A systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses. Results—Fifty-one systematic reviews and meta-analyses related to diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental and behavioral diseases, cancer, hypertension, asthma, multiple sclerosis, chronic renal disease, and obesity were retrieved; these studies compared the use of remote care technology with usual care. Conclusion—Remote care technology has positive effects in various health-related outcomes, but further research is required to allow its use in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from AAATE2017 Congress)
Back to Top