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Technologies, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2014), Pages 115-163

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Crustal Strain Observation Using a Two-Color Interferometer with Accurate Correction of Refractive Index of Air
Technologies 2014, 2(3), 115-128; doi:10.3390/technologies2030115
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 24 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A highly accurate two-color interferometer with automatic correction of the refractive index of air was developed for crustal strain observation. The two-color interferometer, which can measure a geometrical distance of approximately 70 m, with a relative resolution of 2 × 10−9,
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A highly accurate two-color interferometer with automatic correction of the refractive index of air was developed for crustal strain observation. The two-color interferometer, which can measure a geometrical distance of approximately 70 m, with a relative resolution of 2 × 10−9, clearly detected a change in strain due to earth tides in spite of optical measurement in air. Moreover, a large strain quake due to an earthquake could be observed without disturbing the measurement. We demonstrated the advantages of the two-color interferometer in air for geodetic observation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Measurements and Metrology Using Lasers)
Open AccessArticle A 100-m Fabry–Pérot Cavity with Automatic Alignment Controls for Long-Term Observations of Earth’s Strain
Technologies 2014, 2(3), 129-142; doi:10.3390/technologies2030129
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 6 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1087 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed and built a highly accurate laser strainmeter for geophysical observations. It features the precise length measurement of a 100-m optical cavity with reference to a stable quantum standard. Unlike conventional laser strainmeters based on simple Michelson interferometers that require uninterrupted
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We have developed and built a highly accurate laser strainmeter for geophysical observations. It features the precise length measurement of a 100-m optical cavity with reference to a stable quantum standard. Unlike conventional laser strainmeters based on simple Michelson interferometers that require uninterrupted fringe counting to track the evolution of ground deformations, this instrument is able to determine the absolute length of a cavity at any given time. The instrument offers advantage in covering a variety of geophysical events, ranging from instantaneous earthquakes to crustal deformations associated with tectonic strain changes that persist over time. An automatic alignment control and an autonomous relocking system have been developed to realize stable performance and maximize observation times. It was installed in a deep underground site at the Kamioka mine in Japan, and an effective resolution of 2 × (10−8 − 10−7) m was achieved. The regular tidal deformations and co-seismic strain changes were in good agreement with those from a theoretical model and a co-located conventional laser strainmeter. Only the new instrument was able to record large strain steps caused by a nearby large earthquake because of its capability of absolute length determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Measurements and Metrology Using Lasers)

Review

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Open AccessReview Near Field Communication: Technology and Market Trends
Technologies 2014, 2(3), 143-163; doi:10.3390/technologies2030143
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
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Abstract
Among the different hi-tech content domains, the telecommunications industry is one of the most relevant, in particular for the Italian economy. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) represents an example of innovative production and a technological introduction in the telecommunications context. It has a
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Among the different hi-tech content domains, the telecommunications industry is one of the most relevant, in particular for the Italian economy. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) represents an example of innovative production and a technological introduction in the telecommunications context. It has a threefold function: card emulator, peer-to-peer communication and digital content access, and it could be pervasively integrated in many different domains, especially in the mobile payment one. The increasing attention on NFC technology from the academic community has improved an analysis on the changes and the development perspective about mobile payments. It has considered the work done by the GSMA (Global System for Mobile Communications Association) and the NFC Forum in recent years. This study starts from an analysis of the scientific contributions to Near Field Communication and how the main researches on this topic were conceived. Our focus is on the diffusion rates, the adoption rates and the technology life cycle. After that, we analyze the technical-economical elements of NFC. Finally, this work presents the state of art of the improvements to this technology with a deeper focus on NFC technologies applied to the tourism industry. In this way, we have done a case analysis that shows some of the NFC existent applications linked to each stage of the tourism value chain. Full article

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