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Pharmacy, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2013), Pages 1-64

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787) — A Journal of Pharmacy Education and Practice
Pharmacy 2013, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/pharmacy1010001
Received: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 1 February 2013 / Published: 22 February 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787) — A journal of pharmacy education and practice is an international scientific open access journal on pharmacy education and practice, and is published by MDPI online quarterly. The practice of pharmacy is changing at an unprecedented rate as the [...] Read more.
Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787) — A journal of pharmacy education and practice is an international scientific open access journal on pharmacy education and practice, and is published by MDPI online quarterly. The practice of pharmacy is changing at an unprecedented rate as the profession moves from a focus upon preparation and supply of medicines to a clinical patient-facing role. While an understanding of the science related to medicines remains core to pharmacy education, the changes in practice are driving changes to the traditional methods of pharmacy education. This is reflected at an international level by major changes in the educational standards set by statutory regulators and by policy statements from bodies such as the World Health Organisation. These changes reflect an increasing trend to look at educational policy at a supra-national level, typified by the “Pharmine Project” led by the Association of European Faculties of Pharmacy. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Self-Directed Online Learning Modules: Students’ Behaviours and Experiences
Pharmacy 2013, 1(1), 8-15; doi:10.3390/pharmacy1010008
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 29 July 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Academic programs are experiencing pressure to produce efficiencies in education by incorporating online learning. Simply transplanting a text-based resource to an online setting by itself does not necessarily provide an effective online learning environment. In collaboration with clinical educators, our academic team [...] Read more.
Academic programs are experiencing pressure to produce efficiencies in education by incorporating online learning. Simply transplanting a text-based resource to an online setting by itself does not necessarily provide an effective online learning environment. In collaboration with clinical educators, our academic team constructed an online learning activity designed to reinforce allied health student knowledge of pharmacology. However, anecdotal reports from students entering the clinical environment indicated poor engagement with the online resources. These reports prompted the need for a method of formal analysis of student engagement and insights into student preferences and behaviours with online learning. Through auditing online usage data and survey analysis, our study determines a set of practical recommendations for the design of online resources, and their implementation, in order optimise their utilization and educational value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Online Learning)
Open AccessArticle Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement
Pharmacy 2013, 1(1), 16-33; doi:10.3390/pharmacy1010016
Received: 13 May 2013 / Revised: 23 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 9 August 2013
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Abstract
This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Embracing Pharmacy E-Learning: Models of Success
Pharmacy 2013, 1(1), 43-52; doi:10.3390/pharmacy1010043
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 27 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 9 August 2013
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Abstract
Traditionally, education has revolved around the idea of a learner being taught in a physical classroom setting. With recent technological developments and the “immediate results” world we now live in, elearning has become much more common. Students and professionals are now able [...] Read more.
Traditionally, education has revolved around the idea of a learner being taught in a physical classroom setting. With recent technological developments and the “immediate results” world we now live in, elearning has become much more common. Students and professionals are now able to access and acquire lectures, tests, certifications and degrees online. The Purdue University College of Pharmacy’s Center for Medication Safety Advancement has developed three eresources to enhance medication safety: The Veterans Affairs Yellow Belt Lean Certification Course, the Medication Safety Essentials Continuing Education Modules, and the Virtual Clean Room Simulation Certificate. These three modalities offer valuable content for additional knowledge, training and certification at a convenient location—your computer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Online Learning)

Other

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Open AccessProject Report A Description of the European Pharmacy Education and Training Quality Assurance Project
Pharmacy 2013, 1(1), 3-7; doi:10.3390/pharmacy1010003
Received: 30 March 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
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Abstract
The European Union directive on sectoral professions emphasizes the fact that pharmacists working in member states should possess the competences required for their professional practice; the directive does not, however, describe such competences in detail. The “Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education [...] Read more.
The European Union directive on sectoral professions emphasizes the fact that pharmacists working in member states should possess the competences required for their professional practice; the directive does not, however, describe such competences in detail. The “Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training—PHAR-QA” consortium, funded by the European Union, will define such competences and establish a quality assurance system based on them. This will facilitate the tuning of the pharmacy education and training required to produce competent pharmacists in the different member states. PHAR-QA will (1) establish a network of participating pharmacy departments, (2) survey existing quality assurance systems used, and (3) develop competences through iterative interaction with partners. The European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy will use the harmonized competences produced as a basis for the creation of a quality assurance agency for European pharmacy education and training. PHAR-QA will impact on staff and students of European departments; the final stake-holder will be the European patient who will benefit from better pharmaceutical services and better medications. Full article
Open AccessDiscussion Tips for Developing an Integrated Online and Simulation Course Based on 6-Years of Experience
Pharmacy 2013, 1(1), 34-42; doi:10.3390/pharmacy1010034
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 31 July 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 9 August 2013
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Abstract
Technological advancements, changes in pharmacy students’ learning preferences, and increased educational costs have necessitated the development and implementation of innovative teaching modalities. The University of Pittsburgh, School of Pharmacy has been using simulation-based learning throughout the curriculum for several years. To further [...] Read more.
Technological advancements, changes in pharmacy students’ learning preferences, and increased educational costs have necessitated the development and implementation of innovative teaching modalities. The University of Pittsburgh, School of Pharmacy has been using simulation-based learning throughout the curriculum for several years. To further advance this practice, a novel course was designed to teach students new concepts through online video lectures, slide sets and quizzes, and knowledge application during weekly practica time involving multiple patient cases taught with high fidelity simulation. While this course has been well received by students, it does require resources, organization, and time for development. In this article, we describe our experience developing, modifying, and sustaining this blended course with the hope that sharing our experiences over the past six years will lead to expediting successes at other institutions. Tips for success such as keeping online segments short, holding students accountable, thinking of simulation approaches beyond the mannequin, and developing standardized assessment tools are discussed. Overall the blended course of online learning and simulation is a unique educational experience akin to real-world pharmacy practice and is worth the effort with a goal of optimizing learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Online Learning)
Open AccessConcept Paper Designing Dialogic E-Learning in Pharmacy Professionalism Using Calibrated Feedback Loops (CFLs)
Pharmacy 2013, 1(1), 53-64; doi:10.3390/pharmacy1010053
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The feedback analytics of online software including Articulate and Bristol Online Surveys can be used to facilitate dialogic learning in a community of practice such as Pharmacy and, thereby, promote reflective learning by the creation of formative calibrated feedback loops. Based on [...] Read more.
The feedback analytics of online software including Articulate and Bristol Online Surveys can be used to facilitate dialogic learning in a community of practice such as Pharmacy and, thereby, promote reflective learning by the creation of formative calibrated feedback loops. Based on work with medical, dental, nursing, osteopathic, and social work students, trainees, and registrants, the paper shows how an online learning community can be created along the continuum from undergraduate to registrant to develop authentic dialogic e-learning around standards of Professionalism. The Dundee PolyProfessionalism inventories and Situational Judgement Scenarios (SJSs) can be customised for Pharmacy Professionalism learning to support evidence-based curriculum design along benchmarked learning curves and to profile Professionalism learning in individuals and cohorts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Online Learning)

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