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Climate 2018, 6(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli6030063

Mapping Precipitation, Temperature, and Evapotranspiration in the Mkomazi River Basin, Tanzania

Landscape Ecology Group, Institute of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty V Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg, Germany
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Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Services for Local Disaster Risk Reduction in Africa)
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Abstract

It is still a challenge to provide spatially explicit predictions of climate parameters in African regions of complex relief, where meteorological information is scarce. Here we predict rainfall, temperature, and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) for the southern Mkomazi River Basin in Northeastern Tanzania, East Africa, by means of regression-based, digital elevation models (DEM) at 90 m spatial-resolution and geographic information systems (GIS) techniques. We mapped rainfall for the period 1964–2010. The models accounted for orographic factors which strongly influenced the spatial variability of rainfall in the region. According to orography, the area was divided into three zones for modelling rainfall: windward, leeward, and transition zone. Rainfall indicates high spatial and temporal variability dominated by equatorial East-African climate circulation systems. Maximum and minimum temperatures were modelled for the period 1989–1994, the models accounted only for the altitude gradient. Mean temperature was calculated by arithmetic mean of maximum and minimum temperatures maps in ArcGIS. ETo was estimated in ArcGIS following the method described by Hargreaves and Samani. The maps were made on a monthly basis for rainfall, ETo, and mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures. The obtained maps are useful for the purpose of agriculture, ecological, and water resources management. View Full-Text
Keywords: linear regression; mapping; rainfall; temperature; reference evapotranspiration (ETo); digital elevation models (DEMs); geographic information systems (GIS); East Africa linear regression; mapping; rainfall; temperature; reference evapotranspiration (ETo); digital elevation models (DEMs); geographic information systems (GIS); East Africa
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mmbando, G.A.; Kleyer, M. Mapping Precipitation, Temperature, and Evapotranspiration in the Mkomazi River Basin, Tanzania. Climate 2018, 6, 63.

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