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Climate 2016, 4(2), 17; doi:10.3390/cli4020017

Hydro-Climatic Variability in the Karnali River Basin of Nepal Himalaya

1
Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
2
The Small Earth Nepal (SEN), Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
3
Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Kathmandu 44700, Nepal
4
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu 44700, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Daniele Bocchiola, Guglielmina Diolaiuti and Claudio Cassardo
Received: 29 December 2015 / Revised: 13 March 2016 / Accepted: 13 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5819 KB, uploaded 23 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Global climate change has local implications. Focusing on datasets from the topographically-challenging Karnali river basin in Western Nepal, this research provides an overview of hydro-climatic parameters that have been observed during 1981–2012. The spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation were analyzed in the basin considering the seven available climate stations and 20 precipitation stations distributed in the basin. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall test and Sen’s method were used to study the trends in climate data. Results show that the average precipitation in the basin is heterogeneous, and more of the stations trend are decreasing. The precipitation shows decreasing trend by 4.91 mm/year, i.e., around 10% on average. Though the increasing trends were observed in both minimum and maximum temperature, maximum temperature trend is higher than the minimum temperature and the maximum temperature trend during the pre-monsoon season is significantly higher (0.08 °C/year). River discharge and precipitation observations were analyzed to understand the rainfall-runoff relationship. The peak discharge (August) is found to be a month late than the peak precipitation (July) over the basin. Although the annual precipitation in most of the stations shows a decreasing trend, there is constant river discharge during the period 1981–2010. View Full-Text
Keywords: monsoon; spatial_temporal trend; Mann-Kendall test; Sen’s slope; climate change monsoon; spatial_temporal trend; Mann-Kendall test; Sen’s slope; climate change
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Khatiwada, K.R.; Panthi, J.; Shrestha, M.L.; Nepal, S. Hydro-Climatic Variability in the Karnali River Basin of Nepal Himalaya. Climate 2016, 4, 17.

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