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Climate, Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2013), Pages 28-83

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Invitation for Discussion of a Paper Published in Climate: Akasofu, S.-I. On the Present Halting of Global Warming. Climate 2013, 1, 4–11
Climate 2013, 1(2), 74-75; doi:10.3390/cli1020074
Received: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
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Abstract
It has recently been brought to our attention by members of the scientific community that a paper published in Climate (ISSN 2225-1154, http://www.mdpi.com/journal/climate) has raised some controversy regarding its originality, overall quality, and the scientific validity of the data presented. Moreover, two [...] Read more.
It has recently been brought to our attention by members of the scientific community that a paper published in Climate (ISSN 2225-1154, http://www.mdpi.com/journal/climate) has raised some controversy regarding its originality, overall quality, and the scientific validity of the data presented. Moreover, two members have resigned from the Editorial Board, stating they are not willing to be associated with a journal where such articles are published. The paper they referred to was “Akasofu, S.-I. On the Present Halting of Global Warming. Climate 2013, 1, 4–11”, published in the first issue of Climate in May 2013 [1], available online at: http://www.mdpi.com/2225-1154/1/1/4. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Bioclimatic Extremes Drive Forest Mortality in Southwest, Western Australia
Climate 2013, 1(2), 28-52; doi:10.3390/cli1020028
Received: 12 March 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
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Abstract
Extreme and persistent reductions in annual precipitation and an increase in the mean diurnal temperature range have resulted in patch scale forest mortality following the summer of 2010–2011 within the Forest study area near Perth, Western Australia. The impacts of 20 bioclimatic [...] Read more.
Extreme and persistent reductions in annual precipitation and an increase in the mean diurnal temperature range have resulted in patch scale forest mortality following the summer of 2010–2011 within the Forest study area near Perth, Western Australia. The impacts of 20 bioclimatic indicators derived from temperature, precipitation and of actual and potential evapotranspiration are quantified. We found that spatially aggregated seasonal climatologies across the study area show 2011 with an annual mean of 17.7 °C (± 5.3 °C) was 1.1 °C warmer than the mean over recent decades (1981–2011,- 16.6 °C ± 4.6 °C) and the mean has been increasing over the last decade. Compared to the same period, 2010–2011 summer maximum temperatures were 1.4 °C (31.6 °C ± 2.0 °C) higher and the annual mean diurnal temperature range (Tmax−Tmin) was 1.6 °C higher (14.7 °C ± 0.5 °C). In 2009, the year before the forest mortality began, annual precipitation across the study area was 69% less (301 mm ± 38 mm) than the mean of 1981–2010 (907 mm ± 69 mm). Using Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre mission 5 (SPOT-5) satellite imagery captured after the summer of 2010–2011 we map a broad scale forest mortality event across the Forested study area. This satellite-climatology based methodology provides a means of monitoring and mapping similar forest mortality events- a critical contribution to our understanding the dynamical bioclimatic drivers of forest mortality events. Full article
Open AccessArticle ENSO Effects on Land Skin Temperature Variations: A Global Study from Satellite Remote Sensing and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis
Climate 2013, 1(2), 53-73; doi:10.3390/cli1020053
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
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Abstract
Non-lag and lag correlation coefficients between Niño 3 indices derived from sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies and land surface variables from satellite based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, as well as National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis [...] Read more.
Non-lag and lag correlation coefficients between Niño 3 indices derived from sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies and land surface variables from satellite based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, as well as National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis data are analyzed for 2001–2010. Strong positive correlations between January Niño 3 indices and skin temperature (Tskin) occur over the northwest USA, western Canada, and southern Alaska, suggesting that an El Niño event is associated with warmer winter temperatures over these regions, consistent with previous studies based on 2 m surface air temperature measurements (Tair). In addition, in January, strong negative correlations exist over central and northern Europe (meaning colder than normal winters) with positive correlations present over central Siberia (suggesting warmer than normal winters). Despite the different physical meaning between Tair and Tskin, the general response of the two surface temperatures to changes in ENSO is similar. Nevertheless, satellite observations of Tskin provide more rich information and higher spatial resolution than Tair data. Full article

Other

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Open AccessComment Comment on: Akasofu, S.-I. On the Present Halting of Global Warming. Climate 2013, 1, 4–11
Climate 2013, 1(2), 76-83; doi:10.3390/cli1020076
Received: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 19 September 2013
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Abstract
A recent article which has set forth new interpretations of Earth’s recent climate history has included some questions of authentic scientific inquiry, particularly related to the impact of ocean oscillations on atmospheric temperatures. In fact, this very issue is currently being investigated [...] Read more.
A recent article which has set forth new interpretations of Earth’s recent climate history has included some questions of authentic scientific inquiry, particularly related to the impact of ocean oscillations on atmospheric temperatures. In fact, this very issue is currently being investigated by multiple research groups. On the other hand, the claim that a two-century linear temperature increase is a recovery from a recent cool period is not supported by the data. Furthermore, this thermal recovery hypothesis is not connected to any physical phenomenon; rather it is a result of a simplistic and incorrect curve-fitting operation. Other errors in the article are: the claim that the heating of the Earth has halted, misunderstanding of the relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and the resultant radiative forcing, and a failure to account for forcings other than carbon dioxide (such as other greenhouse gases, atmospheric aerosols, land use changes, etc.). Each of these errors brings serious question to the conclusions drawn in the referenced article. The simultaneous occurrence of all of these errors in a single study guarantees that its conclusions cannot be supported and, in fact, are demonstrably incorrect. Full article

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