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J. Dev. Biol., Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessReview A Potential Role for MMPs during the Formation of Non-Neurogenic Placodes
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030020
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
The formation of non-neurogenic placodes is critical prior to the development of several epithelial derivatives (e.g., feathers, teeth, etc.) and their development frequently involves morphogenetic proteins (or morphogens). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, and recent research has
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The formation of non-neurogenic placodes is critical prior to the development of several epithelial derivatives (e.g., feathers, teeth, etc.) and their development frequently involves morphogenetic proteins (or morphogens). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, and recent research has shown that the extracellular matrix (ECM) can modulate morphogen diffusion and cell behaviors. This review summarizes the known roles of MMPs during the development of non-neurogenic structures that involve a placodal stage. Specifically, we discuss feather, hair, tooth, mammary gland and lens development. This review highlights the potential critical role MMPs may play during placode formation in these systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Remodelling during Development)
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Open AccessArticle Heart Development, Coronary Vascularization and Ventricular Maturation in a Giant Danio (Devario malabaricus)
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030019
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Giant danios (genus Devario), like zebrafish, are teleosts belonging to the danioninae subfamily of cyprinids. Adult giant danios are used in a variety of investigations aimed at understanding cellular and physiological processes, including heart regeneration. Despite their importance, little is known about
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Giant danios (genus Devario), like zebrafish, are teleosts belonging to the danioninae subfamily of cyprinids. Adult giant danios are used in a variety of investigations aimed at understanding cellular and physiological processes, including heart regeneration. Despite their importance, little is known about development and growth in giant danios, or their cardiac and coronary vessels development. To address this scarcity of knowledge, we performed a systematic study of a giant danio (Devario malabaricus), focusing on its cardiac development, from the segmentation period to ten months post-fertilization. Using light and scanning electron microscopy, we documented that its cardiovascular development and maturation proceed along well defined dynamic and conserved morphogenic patterns. The overall size and cardiovascular expansion of this species was significantly impacted by environmental parameters such as rearing densities. The coronary vasculature began to emerge in the late larval stage. More importantly, we documented two possible loci of initiation of the coronary vasculature in this species, and compared the emergence of the coronaries to that of zebrafish and gourami. This is the first comprehensive study of the cardiac growth in a Devario species, and our findings serve as an important reference for further investigations of cardiac biology using this species. Full article
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Open AccessReview Development of Normal and Cleft Palate: A Central Role for Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF)/CCN2
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030018
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Development of the palate is the result of an organized series of events that require exquisite spatial and temporal regulation at the cellular level. There are a myriad of growth factors, receptors and signaling pathways that have been shown to play an important
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Development of the palate is the result of an organized series of events that require exquisite spatial and temporal regulation at the cellular level. There are a myriad of growth factors, receptors and signaling pathways that have been shown to play an important role in growth, elevation and/or fusion of the palatal shelves. Altered expression or activation of a number of these factors, receptors and signaling pathways have been shown to cause cleft palate in humans or mice with varying degrees of penetrance. This review will focus on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) or CCN2, which was recently shown to play an essential role in formation of the secondary palate. Specifically, the absence of CCN2 in KO mice results in defective cellular processes that contribute to failure of palatal shelf growth, elevation and/or fusion. CCN2 is unique in that it has been shown to interact with a number of other factors important for palate development, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), epidermal growth factor (EGF), Wnt proteins and transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs), thereby influencing their ability to bind to their receptors and mediate intracellular signaling. The role that these factors play in palate development and their specific interactions with CCN2 will also be reviewed. Future studies to elucidate the precise mechanisms of action for CCN2 and its interactions with other regulatory proteins during palatogenesis are expected to provide novel information with the potential for development of new pharmacologic or genetic treatment strategies for clinical intervention of cleft palate during development. Full article
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Open AccessReview Specification and Patterning of Drosophila Appendages
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030017
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Appendages are external projections of the body that serve the animal for locomotion, feeding, or environment exploration. The appendages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are derived from the imaginal discs, epithelial sac-like structures specified in the embryo that grow and pattern during
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Appendages are external projections of the body that serve the animal for locomotion, feeding, or environment exploration. The appendages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are derived from the imaginal discs, epithelial sac-like structures specified in the embryo that grow and pattern during larva development. In the last decades, genetic and developmental studies in the fruit fly have provided extensive knowledge regarding the mechanisms that direct the formation of the appendages. Importantly, many of the signaling pathways and patterning genes identified and characterized in Drosophila have similar functions during vertebrate appendage development. In this review, we will summarize the genetic and molecular mechanisms that lead to the specification of appendage primordia in the embryo and their posterior patterning during imaginal disc development. The identification of the regulatory logic underlying appendage specification in Drosophila suggests that the evolutionary origin of the insect wing is, in part, related to the development of ventral appendages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drosophila - A Model System for Developmental Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Forced Expression of Foxg1 in the Cortical Hem Leads to the Transformation of Cajal-Retzius Cells into Dentate Granule Neurons
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030016
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
The Wnt- and BMP-rich cortical hem has been demonstrated to be critical for the pattern formation of the telencephalon, and it is particularly important for the induction of the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the cortical hem is one of the sources of Cajal-Retzius cells. Many
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The Wnt- and BMP-rich cortical hem has been demonstrated to be critical for the pattern formation of the telencephalon, and it is particularly important for the induction of the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the cortical hem is one of the sources of Cajal-Retzius cells. Many Cajal-Retzius cells are produced in the hem and populated to the media-caudal surface of the telencephalon. However, the mechanism of the maintenance of the hem remain unclear. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line CAG-loxp-stop-loxp-Foxg1-IRES-EGFP. By crossing Fzd10CreERTM with this line, combined with tamoxifen induction, Foxg1 was ectopically expressed in the hem from embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) onwards. We have found the hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells were transformed into dentate granule neurons accompanied with ectopic expression of Lhx2. However, the morphology of the hem displayed no obvious changes. The hem specific markers, Wnt3a and Wnt2b, were slightly downregulated. Our results indicate that Foxg1 is sufficient to induce the expression of Lhx2 in the dorsal part of the hem. The ectopic Lhx2 and decreased Wnt signals may both contribute to the cell fate switch. Our study provides new insight into the mechanism underlying the maintenance of the hem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Two Different Cold-Extruded Feeds and Feeding Regimens on Zebrafish Survival, Growth and Reproductive Performance
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030015
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the top model organisms used in biomedical research. Therefore, it is fundamental that zebrafish facilities continuously improve husbandry methods to provide fish with the best physiological and welfare conditions that suit each experimental purpose. Nutrition
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Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the top model organisms used in biomedical research. Therefore, it is fundamental that zebrafish facilities continuously improve husbandry methods to provide fish with the best physiological and welfare conditions that suit each experimental purpose. Nutrition is a husbandry aspect that needs further optimization, as it greatly affects growth, reproduction, health and behaviour. Here, we have compared the impact of different feeding regimens on zebrafish survival, growth and reproductive performance. Mutant and wild-type zebrafish were raised using several combinations of two cold-extruded processed feeds—Skretting®GemmaMicro and Sparos®Zebrafeed—and one live feed (rotifers). Zebrafeed® outperformed GemmaMicro® in terms of survival rate, and embryo viability was also higher when the spawners were fed with Zebrafeed® either from larval stage or upon sexual maturation. In contrast, GemmaMicro® favoured growth, both in size and weight. The use of rotifers until 60 days post-fertilization improved survival of fish co-fed with GemmaMicro®, while delaying their growth. Zebrafeed® performance was not affected by co-feeding rotifers. Overall, we showed that different nutritional formulas affect physiological parameters, allowing for the establishment of feeding protocols adapted to the objectives of each facility. At the same time, we validated Skretting®GemmaMicro and Sparos®Zebrafeed as two commercially available feeds that are well suited for zebrafish nutrition in a laboratory environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish - A Model System for Developmental Biology Study)
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