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J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6020014

Unanswered Questions Regarding Sex and BMP/TGF-β Signaling

Rutgers—New Jersey Medical School, Microbiology, Biochemistry, & Molecular Genetics, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
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Academic Editor: Samuel J. Pleasure
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [210 KB, uploaded 16 June 2018]

Abstract

Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic, whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the interplay between sex and BMP/TGF-β signaling and pose several unanswered questions. View Full-Text
Keywords: BMP; TGF-β; signaling; sex; chromosomes; XIST; genomic imprinting; hormones; fibrosis BMP; TGF-β; signaling; sex; chromosomes; XIST; genomic imprinting; hormones; fibrosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shah, T.A.; Rogers, M.B. Unanswered Questions Regarding Sex and BMP/TGF-β Signaling. J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6, 14.

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