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J. Dev. Biol. 2016, 4(3), 23; doi:10.3390/jdb4030023

Regulation of Hedgehog Signalling Inside and Outside the Cell

1
Institute of Genetic Medicine, International Centre for Life, Newcastle University, NE1 3BZ Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
2
Biology Department, University of York, YO10 5YW York, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Henk Roelink and Simon J. Conway
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hedgehog Signaling in Embryogenesis)
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Abstract

The hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway is conserved throughout metazoans and plays an important regulatory role in both embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Many levels of regulation exist that control the release, reception, and interpretation of the hedgehog signal. The fatty nature of the Shh ligand means that it tends to associate tightly with the cell membrane, and yet it is known to act as a morphogen that diffuses to elicit pattern formation. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a major role in the regulation of Hh distribution outside the cell. Inside the cell, the primary cilium provides an important hub for processing the Hh signal in vertebrates. This review will summarise the current understanding of how the Hh pathway is regulated from ligand production, release, and diffusion, through to signal reception and intracellular transduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: signalling; regulation; heparan sulfate; Hedgehog signalling; regulation; heparan sulfate; Hedgehog
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ramsbottom, S.A.; Pownall, M.E. Regulation of Hedgehog Signalling Inside and Outside the Cell. J. Dev. Biol. 2016, 4, 23.

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