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J. Dev. Biol. 2016, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/jdb4020021

Signalling by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Isoforms in Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration

1
School of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robin Muise-Helmericks and Simon J. Conway
Received: 13 May 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration)
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Abstract

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling is essential for wound healing, including both non-specific scar formation and tissue-specific regeneration. Specific TGFβ isoforms and downstream mediators of canonical and non-canonical signalling play different roles in each of these processes. Here we review the role of TGFβ signalling during tissue repair, with a particular focus on the prototypic isoforms TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβ3. We begin by introducing TGFβ signalling and then discuss the role of these growth factors and their key downstream signalling mediators in determining the balance between scar formation and tissue regeneration. Next we discuss examples of the pleiotropic roles of TGFβ ligands during cutaneous wound healing and blastema-mediated regeneration, and how inhibition of the canonical signalling pathway (using small molecule inhibitors) blocks regeneration. Finally, we review various TGFβ-targeting therapeutic strategies that hold promise for enhancing tissue repair. View Full-Text
Keywords: transforming growth factor beta; TGFβ; isoforms; tissue regeneration; wound healing transforming growth factor beta; TGFβ; isoforms; tissue regeneration; wound healing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gilbert, R.W.; Vickaryous, M.K.; Viloria-Petit, A.M. Signalling by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Isoforms in Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration. J. Dev. Biol. 2016, 4, 21.

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