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J. Dev. Biol. 2016, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jdb4010001

Beyond the Mammalian Heart: Fish and Amphibians as a Model for Cardiac Repair and Regeneration

Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robin Muise-Helmericks and Andy Wessels
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration)
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Abstract

The epidemic of heart disease, the leading cause of death worldwide, is made worse by the fact that the adult mammalian heart is especially poor at repair. Damage to the mammal heart—such as that caused by myocardial infarction—leads to scarring, resulting in cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. In contrast, the hearts of fish and urodele amphibians are capable of complete regeneration of cardiac tissue from multiple types of damage, with full restoration of functionality. In the last decades, research has revealed a wealth of information on how these animals are able to perform this remarkable feat, and non-mammalian models of heart repair have become a burgeoning new source of data on the morphological, cellular, and molecular processes necessary to heal cardiac damage. In this review we present the major findings from recent research on the underlying mechanisms of fish and amphibian heart regeneration. We also discuss the tools and techniques that have been developed to answer these important questions. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart; regeneration; apoptosis; necrosis; myocardium; epicardium; fibrosis; migration; proliferation; dedifferentiation; transdifferentiation; retinoic acid; TGF-β; FGF heart; regeneration; apoptosis; necrosis; myocardium; epicardium; fibrosis; migration; proliferation; dedifferentiation; transdifferentiation; retinoic acid; TGF-β; FGF
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jewhurst, K.; McLaughlin, K.A. Beyond the Mammalian Heart: Fish and Amphibians as a Model for Cardiac Repair and Regeneration. J. Dev. Biol. 2016, 4, 1.

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