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J. Dev. Biol. 2015, 3(2), 71-89; doi:10.3390/jdb3020071

Regeneration of the Epiphysis Including the Articular Cartilage in the Injured Knees of the Lizard Podarcis muralis

Comparative Histolab and Dipartimento of Bigea, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Academic Editors: Robin C. Muise-Helmericks and Andy Wessels
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration)
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Abstract

Cartilage regeneration is massive during tail regeneration in lizards but little is known about cartilage regeneration in other body regions of the skeleton. The recovery capability of injured epiphyses of femur and tibia of lizard knees has been studied by histology and 5BrdU immunohistochemistry in lizards kept at high environmental temperatures. Lizard epiphyses contain a secondary ossified center of variable extension surrounded peripherally by an articular cartilage and basally by columns of chondrocytes that form the mataphyseal or growth plate. After injury of the knee epiphyses, a broad degeneration of the articular cartilage during the first days post-injury is present. However a rapid regeneration of cartilaginous tissue is observed from 7 to 14 days post-injury and by 21 days post-lesions, a large part of the epiphyses are reformed by new cartilage. Labeling with 5BrdU indicates that the proliferating cells are derived from both the surface of the articular cartilage and from the metaphyseal plate, two chondrogenic regions that appear proliferating also in normal, uninjured knees. Chondroblasts proliferate by interstitial multiplication forming isogenous groups with only a scant extracellular matrix that later increases. The high regenerative power of lizard articular cartilage appears related to the permanence of growing cartilaginous centers in the epiphyses of long bones such as those of the knee during adulthood. It is likely that these regions contain resident stem cells that give rise to new chondroblasts of the articular and metaphyseal cartilage during most of the lizard’s lifetime, but can produce an excess of cartilaginous tissues when stimulated by the lesion. View Full-Text
Keywords: lizard; knee injury; epiphyses; cartilage regeneration; 5BrdU immunolabeling lizard; knee injury; epiphyses; cartilage regeneration; 5BrdU immunolabeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alibardi, L. Regeneration of the Epiphysis Including the Articular Cartilage in the Injured Knees of the Lizard Podarcis muralis. J. Dev. Biol. 2015, 3, 71-89.

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J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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