ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(3), 598-620; doi:10.3390/ijgi2030598

Indoor Positioning for Smartphones Using Asynchronous Ultrasound Trilateration

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Received: 3 May 2013; in revised form: 6 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Modern smartphones are a great platform for Location Based Services (LBS). While outdoor LBS for smartphones has proven to be very successful, indoor LBS for smartphones has not yet fully developed due to the lack of an accurate positioning technology. In this paper we present an accurate indoor positioning approach for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) smartphones that uses the innate ability of mobile phones to produce ultrasound, combined with Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) asynchronous trilateration. We evaluate our indoor positioning approach by describing its strengths and weaknesses, and determine its absolute accuracy. This is accomplished through a range of experiments that involve variables such as position of control point microphones, position of phone within the room, direction speaker is facing and presence of user in the signal path. Test results show that our Lok8 (locate) mobile positioning system can achieve accuracies better than 10 cm in a real-world environment.
Keywords: mobile indoor positioning; ultrasound; LBS; least squares trilateration; TDOA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Filonenko, V.; Cullen, C.; Carswell, J.D. Indoor Positioning for Smartphones Using Asynchronous Ultrasound Trilateration. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2, 598-620.

AMA Style

Filonenko V, Cullen C, Carswell JD. Indoor Positioning for Smartphones Using Asynchronous Ultrasound Trilateration. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2013; 2(3):598-620.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Filonenko, Viacheslav; Cullen, Charlie; Carswell, James D. 2013. "Indoor Positioning for Smartphones Using Asynchronous Ultrasound Trilateration." ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2, no. 3: 598-620.

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