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Biomolecules 2015, 5(3), 1245-1265; doi:10.3390/biom5031245

Bacterial Sigma Factors and Anti-Sigma Factors: Structure, Function and Distribution

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
Academic Editors: Sivaramesh Wigneshweraraj and Deborah M. Hinton
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial RNA Polymerase)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2547 KB, uploaded 26 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Sigma factors are multi-domain subunits of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) that play critical roles in transcription initiation, including the recognition and opening of promoters as well as the initial steps in RNA synthesis. This review focuses on the structure and function of the major sigma-70 class that includes the housekeeping sigma factor (Group 1) that directs the bulk of transcription during active growth, and structurally-related alternative sigma factors (Groups 2–4) that control a wide variety of adaptive responses such as morphological development and the management of stress. A recurring theme in sigma factor control is their sequestration by anti-sigma factors that occlude their RNAP-binding determinants. Sigma factors are then released through a wide variety of mechanisms, often involving branched signal transduction pathways that allow the integration of distinct signals. Three major strategies for sigma release are discussed: regulated proteolysis, partner-switching, and direct sensing by the anti-sigma factor. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA polymerase; transcription; anti-sigma; sigma; partner-switching; RIP; signal transduction; stress; extracytoplasmic RNA polymerase; transcription; anti-sigma; sigma; partner-switching; RIP; signal transduction; stress; extracytoplasmic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Paget, M.S. Bacterial Sigma Factors and Anti-Sigma Factors: Structure, Function and Distribution. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 1245-1265.

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