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Biomolecules 2015, 5(2), 378-411; doi:10.3390/biom5020378

Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods for Identifying Oxidized Proteins in Disease: Advances and Challenges

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
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Academic Editors: Michael Breitenbach and Peter Eckl
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Oxygen Radicals)
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Abstract

Many inflammatory diseases have an oxidative aetiology, which leads to oxidative damage to biomolecules, including proteins. It is now increasingly recognized that oxidative post-translational modifications (oxPTMs) of proteins affect cell signalling and behaviour, and can contribute to pathology. Moreover, oxidized proteins have potential as biomarkers for inflammatory diseases. Although many assays for generic protein oxidation and breakdown products of protein oxidation are available, only advanced tandem mass spectrometry approaches have the power to localize specific oxPTMs in identified proteins. While much work has been carried out using untargeted or discovery mass spectrometry approaches, identification of oxPTMs in disease has benefitted from the development of sophisticated targeted or semi-targeted scanning routines, combined with chemical labeling and enrichment approaches. Nevertheless, many potential pitfalls exist which can result in incorrect identifications. This review explains the limitations, advantages and challenges of all of these approaches to detecting oxidatively modified proteins, and provides an update on recent literature in which they have been used to detect and quantify protein oxidation in disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative post-translational modification; inflammation; cardiovascular disease; protein carbonyls; nitrotyrosine; chlorotyrosine; LC-MS/MS; precursor ion scanning; neutral loss scanning; multiple reaction monitoring oxidative post-translational modification; inflammation; cardiovascular disease; protein carbonyls; nitrotyrosine; chlorotyrosine; LC-MS/MS; precursor ion scanning; neutral loss scanning; multiple reaction monitoring
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Verrastro, I.; Pasha, S.; Jensen, K.T.; Pitt, A.R.; Spickett, C.M. Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods for Identifying Oxidized Proteins in Disease: Advances and Challenges. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 378-411.

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