Next Article in Journal
PTPIP51—A New RelA-tionship with the NFκB Signaling Pathway
Next Article in Special Issue
Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin
Previous Article in Journal
The Interplay between Alpha-Synuclein Clearance and Spreading
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods for Identifying Oxidized Proteins in Disease: Advances and Challenges
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Biomolecules 2015, 5(2), 472-484; doi:10.3390/biom5020472

Biological Activities of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species: Oxidative Stress versus Signal Transduction

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, AUVA Research Center, Donaueschingenstraße 13, 1200 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Peter Eckl and Michael Breitenbach
Received: 3 February 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Oxygen Radicals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [242 KB, uploaded 15 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

In the past, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) were shown to cause oxidative damage to biomolecules, contributing to the development of a variety of diseases. However, recent evidence has suggested that intracellular RONS are an important component of intracellular signaling cascades. The aim of this review was to consolidate old and new ideas on the chemical, physiological and pathological role of RONS for a better understanding of their properties and specific activities. Critical consideration of the literature reveals that deleterious effects do not appear if only one primary species (superoxide radical, nitric oxide) is present in a biological system, even at high concentrations. The prerequisite of deleterious effects is the formation of highly reactive secondary species (hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite), emerging exclusively upon reaction with another primary species or a transition metal. The secondary species are toxic, not well controlled, causing irreversible damage to all classes of biomolecules. In contrast, primary RONS are well controlled (superoxide dismutase, catalase), and their reactions with biomolecules are reversible, making them ideal for physiological/pathophysiological intracellular signaling. We assume that whether RONS have a signal transducing or damaging effect is primarily defined by their quality, being primary or secondary RONS, and only secondly by their quantity. View Full-Text
Keywords: superoxide radical; hydrogen peroxide; hydroxyl radical; nitric oxide; mitochondria superoxide radical; hydrogen peroxide; hydroxyl radical; nitric oxide; mitochondria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Weidinger, A.; Kozlov, A.V. Biological Activities of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species: Oxidative Stress versus Signal Transduction. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 472-484.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Biomolecules EISSN 2218-273X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top