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Biomolecules 2014, 4(4), 897-930; doi:10.3390/biom4040897

Cullin E3 Ligases and Their Rewiring by Viral Factors

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158-2530, USA
2
Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158-2530, USA
3
Department of Biology and Environment, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa at Oranim, Tivon 3003500, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteasomes and Its Regulators)
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Abstract

The ability of viruses to subvert host pathways is central in disease pathogenesis. Over the past decade, a critical role for the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) in counteracting host immune factors during viral infection has emerged. This counteraction is commonly achieved by the expression of viral proteins capable of sequestering host ubiquitin E3 ligases and their regulators. In particular, many viruses hijack members of the Cullin-RING E3 Ligase (CRL) family. Viruses interact in many ways with CRLs in order to impact their ligase activity; one key recurring interaction involves re-directing CRL complexes to degrade host targets that are otherwise not degraded within host cells. Removal of host immune factors by this mechanism creates a more amenable cellular environment for viral propagation. To date, a small number of target host factors have been identified, many of which are degraded via a CRL-proteasome pathway. Substantial effort within the field is ongoing to uncover the identities of further host proteins targeted in this fashion and the underlying mechanisms driving their turnover by the UPS. Elucidation of these targets and mechanisms will provide appealing anti-viral therapeutic opportunities. This review is focused on the many methods used by viruses to perturb host CRLs, focusing on substrate sequestration and viral regulation of E3 activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: ubiquitin; proteasome; E3; cullin; F-box protein; virus; cullin-RING ligase ubiquitin; proteasome; E3; cullin; F-box protein; virus; cullin-RING ligase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahon, C.; Krogan, N.J.; Craik, C.S.; Pick, E. Cullin E3 Ligases and Their Rewiring by Viral Factors. Biomolecules 2014, 4, 897-930.

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