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Pathways for Genome Integrity in G2 Phase of the Cell Cycle
Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2012; in revised form: 17 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 30 November 2012
Abstract: The maintenance of genome integrity is important for normal cellular functions, organism development and the prevention of diseases, such as cancer. Cellular pathways respond immediately to DNA breaks leading to the initiation of a multi-facetted DNA damage response, which leads to DNA repair and cell cycle arrest. Cell cycle checkpoints provide the cell time to complete replication and repair the DNA damage before it can continue to the next cell cycle phase. The G2/M checkpoint plays an especially important role in ensuring the propagation of error-free copies of the genome to each daughter cell. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of DNA repair and checkpoint pathways in late S and G2 phases. This review will first describe the current understanding of normal cell cycle progression through G2 phase to mitosis. It will also discuss the DNA damage response including cell cycle checkpoint control and DNA double-strand break repair. Finally, we discuss the emerging concept that DNA repair pathways play a major role in the G2/M checkpoint pathway thereby blocking cell division as long as DNA lesions are present.
Keywords: genome integrity; IR; DNA damage checkpoint; G2/M transition; DNA repair
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kousholt, A.N.; Menzel, T.; Sørensen, C.S. Pathways for Genome Integrity in G2 Phase of the Cell Cycle. Biomolecules 2012, 2, 579-607.
Kousholt AN, Menzel T, Sørensen CS. Pathways for Genome Integrity in G2 Phase of the Cell Cycle. Biomolecules. 2012; 2(4):579-607.
Kousholt, Arne N.; Menzel, Tobias; Sørensen, Claus S. 2012. "Pathways for Genome Integrity in G2 Phase of the Cell Cycle." Biomolecules 2, no. 4: 579-607.