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Biomolecules 2012, 2(4), 524-548; doi:10.3390/biom2040524

Functional Aspects of PARP1 in DNA Repair and Transcription

1 Singapore Immunology Network, A*STAR, 8A Biomedical Grove, #03-06 Immunos, Singapore 138648, Singapore 2 Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 5 Science Drive 2, MD4, Level 5, Singapore 117597, Singapore
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2012 / Revised: 24 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage Response)
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Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is an ADP-ribosylating enzyme essential for initiating various forms of DNA repair. Inhibiting its enzyme activity with small molecules thus achieves synthetic lethality by preventing unwanted DNA repair in the treatment of cancers. Through enzyme-dependent chromatin remodeling and enzyme-independent motif recognition, PARP1 also plays important roles in regulating gene expression. Besides presenting current findings on how each process is individually controlled by PARP1, we shall discuss how transcription and DNA repair are so intricately linked that disturbance by PARP1 enzymatic inhibition, enzyme hyperactivation in diseases, and viral replication can favor one function while suppressing the other.
Keywords: ADP-ribosylation; DNA repair; transcription; PARP inhibitors; cancer; inflammation; oncogenic virus ADP-ribosylation; DNA repair; transcription; PARP inhibitors; cancer; inflammation; oncogenic virus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ko, H.L.; Ren, E.C. Functional Aspects of PARP1 in DNA Repair and Transcription. Biomolecules 2012, 2, 524-548.

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