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Metabolites 2018, 8(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8020026

GC-MS Based Metabolomics and NMR Spectroscopy Investigation of Food Intake Biomarkers for Milk and Cheese in Serum of Healthy Humans

1
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences (DISTAL), University of Bologna, 47521 Cesena, Italy
2
Agroscope, 3003 Berne, Switzerland
3
Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Lausanne University Hospital, 1011 Lausanne 1005, Switzerland
The authors contributed equally.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional and Food Metabolomics)
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Abstract

The identification and validation of food intake biomarkers (FIBs) in human biofluids is a key objective for the evaluation of dietary intake. We report here the analysis of the GC-MS and 1H-NMR metabolomes of serum samples from a randomized cross-over study in 11 healthy volunteers having consumed isocaloric amounts of milk, cheese, and a soy drink as non-dairy alternative. Serum was collected at baseline, postprandially up to 6 h, and 24 h after consumption. A multivariate analysis of the untargeted serum metabolomes, combined with a targeted analysis of candidate FIBs previously reported in urine samples from the same study, identified galactitol, galactonate, and galactono-1,5-lactone (milk), 3-phenyllactic acid (cheese), and pinitol (soy drink) as candidate FIBs for these products. Serum metabolites not previously identified in the urine samples, e.g., 3-hydroxyisobutyrate after cheese intake, were detected. Finally, an analysis of the postprandial behavior of candidate FIBs, in particular the dairy fatty acids pentadecanoic acid and heptadecanoic acid, revealed specific kinetic patterns of relevance to their detection in future validation studies. Taken together, promising candidate FIBs for dairy intake appear to be lactose and metabolites thereof, for lactose-containing products, and microbial metabolites derived from amino acids, for fermented dairy products such as cheese. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker; metabolomics; nutrition; serum metabolome; milk; cheese; soy drink biomarker; metabolomics; nutrition; serum metabolome; milk; cheese; soy drink
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Trimigno, A.; Münger, L.; Picone, G.; Freiburghaus, C.; Pimentel, G.; Vionnet, N.; Pralong, F.; Capozzi, F.; Badertscher, R.; Vergères, G. GC-MS Based Metabolomics and NMR Spectroscopy Investigation of Food Intake Biomarkers for Milk and Cheese in Serum of Healthy Humans. Metabolites 2018, 8, 26.

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