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Metabolites 2017, 7(2), 25; doi:10.3390/metabo7020025

Breast Tissue Metabolism by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Department of NMR & MRI Facility, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Madhu Basetti
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Metabolism)
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Abstract

Metabolic alterations are known to occur with oncogenesis and tumor progression. During malignant transformation, the metabolism of cells and tissues is altered. Cancer metabolism can be studied using advanced technologies that detect both metabolites and metabolic activities. Identification, characterization, and quantification of metabolites (metabolomics) are important for metabolic analysis and are usually done by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or by mass spectrometry. In contrast to the magnetic resonance imaging that is used to monitor the tumor morphology during progression of the disease and during therapy, in vivo NMR spectroscopy is used to study and monitor tumor metabolism of cells/tissues by detection of various biochemicals or metabolites involved in various metabolic pathways. Several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo NMR studies using 1H and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) nuclei have documented increased levels of total choline containing compounds, phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters in human breast cancer tissues, which is indicative of altered choline and phospholipid metabolism. These levels get reversed with successful treatment. Another method that increases the sensitivity of substrate detection by using nuclear spin hyperpolarization of 13C-lableled substrates by dynamic nuclear polarization has revived a great interest in the study of cancer metabolism. This review discusses breast tissue metabolism studied by various NMR/MRS methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS); breast cancer; tissue metabolism; in vivo; in vitro; High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS); breast cancer; tissue metabolism; in vivo; in vitro; High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: PMID: 19249170 ; PMID: 22213087; PMID: 24273108
    Description: PDF of the permission to reproduce figures used in this review

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Jagannathan, N.R.; Sharma, U. Breast Tissue Metabolism by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Metabolites 2017, 7, 25.

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