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Metabolites 2013, 3(3), 718-740; doi:10.3390/metabo3030718
Article

1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil

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Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response to Environment and Stress Metabolism)
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Abstract: 1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg) for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that were comprised of two separate modes of action: a non-polar narcosis type mechanism after two days of exposure and increased fatty acid oxidation after seven and fourteen days of exposure. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-furansulfonate (HEFS), betaine, leucine, arginine, glutamate, maltose and ATP are potential indicators of PFOS exposure, as the concentrations of these metabolites fluctuated significantly. Overall, NMR-based metabolomic analysis suggests elevated fatty acid oxidation, disruption in energy metabolism and biological membrane structure and a possible interruption of ATP synthesis. These conclusions obtained from analysis of the metabolic profile in response to sub-lethal PFOS exposure indicates that NMR-based metabolomics is an excellent discovery tool when the mode of action (MOA) of contaminants is not clearly defined.
Keywords: PFOS; metabolic profiling; mode of action; PFAAs; earthworms PFOS; metabolic profiling; mode of action; PFAAs; earthworms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lankadurai, B.P.; Furdui, V.I.; Reiner, E.J.; Simpson, A.J.; Simpson, M.J. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil. Metabolites 2013, 3, 718-740.

AMA Style

Lankadurai BP, Furdui VI, Reiner EJ, Simpson AJ, Simpson MJ. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil. Metabolites. 2013; 3(3):718-740.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lankadurai, Brian P.; Furdui, Vasile I.; Reiner, Eric J.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J. 2013. "1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil." Metabolites 3, no. 3: 718-740.



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