Metabolites 2013, 3(2), 223-242; doi:10.3390/metabo3020223
Article

Development of a Direct Headspace Collection Method from Arabidopsis Seedlings Using HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS Analysis

1,2,* email, 1,3email, 1email, 1email and 1,4email
Received: 20 February 2013; in revised form: 21 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 9 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Plant Metabolic Engineering)
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Abstract: Plants produce various volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are thought to be a crucial factor in their interactions with harmful insects, plants and animals. Composition of VOCs may differ when plants are grown under different nutrient conditions, i.e., macronutrient-deficient conditions. However, in plants, relationships between macronutrient assimilation and VOC composition remain unclear. In order to identify the kinds of VOCs that can be emitted when plants are grown under various environmental conditions, we established a conventional method for VOC profiling in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) involving headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS). We grew Arabidopsis seedlings in an HS vial to directly perform HS analysis. To maximize the analytical performance of VOCs, we optimized the extraction method and the analytical conditions of HP-SPME-GC-TOF-MS. Using the optimized method, we conducted VOC profiling of Arabidopsis seedlings, which were grown under two different nutrition conditions, nutrition-rich and nutrition-deficient conditions. The VOC profiles clearly showed a distinct pattern with respect to each condition. This study suggests that HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS analysis has immense potential to detect changes in the levels of VOCs in not only Arabidopsis, but other plants grown under various environmental conditions.
Keywords: solid-phase microextraction; HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS; volatile organic compounds; VOC profiling; Arabidopsis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kusano, M.; Iizuka, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Fukushima, A.; Saito, K. Development of a Direct Headspace Collection Method from Arabidopsis Seedlings Using HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS Analysis. Metabolites 2013, 3, 223-242.

AMA Style

Kusano M, Iizuka Y, Kobayashi M, Fukushima A, Saito K. Development of a Direct Headspace Collection Method from Arabidopsis Seedlings Using HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS Analysis. Metabolites. 2013; 3(2):223-242.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kusano, Miyako; Iizuka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Fukushima, Atsushi; Saito, Kazuki. 2013. "Development of a Direct Headspace Collection Method from Arabidopsis Seedlings Using HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS Analysis." Metabolites 3, no. 2: 223-242.


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