Metabolites 2013, 3(1), 185-203; doi:10.3390/metabo3010185
Article

Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula

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Received: 25 December 2012; in revised form: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Plant Metabolic Engineering)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are fundamental nutritional metabolites in different types of grape products consumed by human beings. Although the biosynthesis of PAs in berry of Vitis vinifera has gained intensive investigations, the understanding of PAs in other Vitis species is limited. In this study, we report PA formation and characterization of gene expression involved in PA biosynthesis in leaves of V. bellula, a wild edible grape species native to south and south-west China. Leaves are collected at five developmental stages defined by sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm in length. Analyses of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) show the formation of (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (−)-epigallocatechin during the entire development of leaves. Analyses of butanol-HCl boiling cleavage coupled with spectrometry measurement at 550 nm show a temporal trend of extractable PA levels, which is characterized by an increase from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm long leaves followed by a decrease in late stages. TLC and HPLC-PAD analyses identify cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin produced from the cleavage of PAs in the butanol-HCl boiling, showing that the foliage PAs of V. bellula include three different types of extension units. Four cDNAs, which encode VbANR, VbDFR, VbLAR1 and VbLAR2, respectively, are cloned from young leaves. The expression patterns of VbANR and VbLAR2 but not VbLAR1 and VbDFR follow a similar trend as the accumulation patterns of PAs. Two cDNAs encoding VbMYBPA1 and VbMYB5a, the homologs of which have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of both ANR and LAR in V. vinifera, are also cloned and their expression profiles are similar to those of VbANR and VbLAR2. In contrast, the expression profiles of MYBA1 and 2 homologs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are different from those of VbANR and VbLAR2. Our data show that both ANR and LAR branches are involved in PA biosynthesis in leaves of V. bellula.
Keywords: Vitis bellula; proanthocyanidins; anthocyanidin reductase; leucoanthocyanidin reductase; flavan-3-ols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, Y.; Peng, Q.-Z.; Du, C.; Li, K.-G.; Xie, D.-Y. Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula. Metabolites 2013, 3, 185-203.

AMA Style

Zhu Y, Peng Q-Z, Du C, Li K-G, Xie D-Y. Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula. Metabolites. 2013; 3(1):185-203.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Yue; Peng, Qing-Zhong; Du, Ci; Li, Ke-Gang; Xie, De-Yu. 2013. "Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula." Metabolites 3, no. 1: 185-203.

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