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Diseases, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-70

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Diseases — the Reasons for a New Challenge in Open Access Medicine Research
Diseases 2014, 2(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/diseases2010001
Received: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
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Abstract First, I would like to warmly welcome the readers, contributors, and editorial board members of Diseases journal as a new entrant to the international periodicals industry. [...] Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessReview Trypanosomatid Aquaporins: Roles in Physiology and Drug Response
Diseases 2014, 2(1), 3-23; doi:10.3390/diseases2010003
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 22 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
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Abstract
In the class Kinetoplastida, we find an order of parasitic protozoans classified as Trypanosomatids. Three major pathogens form part of this order, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania, which are responsible for disease and fatalities in millions of humans worldwide, especially in non-industrialized
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In the class Kinetoplastida, we find an order of parasitic protozoans classified as Trypanosomatids. Three major pathogens form part of this order, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania, which are responsible for disease and fatalities in millions of humans worldwide, especially in non-industrialized countries in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In order to develop new drugs and treatments, the physiology of these pathogenic protozoans has been studied in detail, specifically the significance of membrane transporters in host parasites interactions. Aquaporins and Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs) are a part of the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) super-family. AQPs are characterized for their ability to facilitate the diffusion of water (aquaporin), glycerol (aquaglyceroporin), and other small-uncharged solutes. Furthermore, AQPs have been shown to allow the ubiquitous passage of some metalloids, such as trivalent arsenic and antimony. These trivalent metalloids are the active ingredient of a number of chemotherapeutic agents used against certain cancers and protozoan parasitic infections. Recently, the importance of the AQPs not only in osmotic adaptations but also as a factor in drug resistance of the trypanosomatid parasites has been reported. In this review, we will describe the physiological functions of aquaporins and their effect in drug response across the different trypanosomatids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Figures

Open AccessReview Pathological Mutations of the Mitochondrial Human Genome: the Instrumental Role of the Yeast S. cerevisiae
Diseases 2014, 2(1), 24-44; doi:10.3390/diseases2010024
Received: 8 November 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
Mitochondrial diseases, which altogether represent not so rare diseases, can be due to mutations either in the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes. Several model organisms or cell lines are usually employed to understand the mechanisms underlying diseases, yeast being one of them. However, in
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Mitochondrial diseases, which altogether represent not so rare diseases, can be due to mutations either in the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes. Several model organisms or cell lines are usually employed to understand the mechanisms underlying diseases, yeast being one of them. However, in the case of mutations within the mitochondrial genome, yeast is a major model because it is a facultative aerobe and its mitochondrial genome can be genetically engineered and reintroduced in vivo. In this short review, I will describe how these properties can be exploited to mimic mitochondrial pathogenic mutations, as well as their limits. In particular; pathological mutations of tRNA, cytb, and ATPase genes have been successfully modeled. It is essential to stress that what has been discovered with yeast (molecular mechanisms underlying the diseases, nuclear correcting genes, import of tRNA into mitochondria or compounds from drug screening) has been successfully transferred to human patient lines, paving the way for future therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessReview MeCP2-Related Diseases and Animal Models
Diseases 2014, 2(1), 45-70; doi:10.3390/diseases2010045
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 19 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human
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The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Several neurological and non-neurological disorders are associated with mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. One of the most studied proteins that impacts human disease and is associated with deregulation of epigenetic processes is Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). MeCP2 is an epigenetic regulator that modulates gene expression by translating epigenetic DNA methylation marks into appropriate cellular responses. In order to highlight the importance of epigenetics to development and disease, we will discuss how MeCP2 emerges as a key epigenetic player in human neurodevelopmental, neurological, and non-neurological disorders. We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

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