Next Article in Journal
Security Interrogation and Defense for SAR Analog to Digital Converter
Previous Article in Journal
Remote System Update for System on Programmable Chip Based on Controller Area Network
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Electronics 2017, 6(2), 47; doi:10.3390/electronics6020047

A Galvanic Intrabody Method for Assessing Fluid Flow in Unilateral Lymphoedema

College of Engineering & Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enzo Pasquale Scilingo
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1391 KB, uploaded 15 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Lymphoedema is a disease associated with abnormal functioning of the lymph that leads to swelling of the body due to accumulation of tissue fluid on the affected area. Tissue fluid contains ions and electrolytes that affect electrical conductivity. The flow of tissue fluid helps to distribute vital nutrients and other important elements necessary for healthy living. When tissue fluid is stagnated, a high concentration of electrolytes accumulate on the affected area, which in turn affects an electrical signal passing through that area to be minimally attenuated in relation to a free-flowing fluid. We demonstrate that a galvanic coupled signal propagating along a lymphoedema affected limb could capture these changes by the amount of attenuation the propagating signal experiences in time. Our results show that average rate of signal attenuation on a lymphoedema affected part of the body could be as slow as 0.16 dB/min, while the rate of signal attenuation on a healthy part is as high as 1.83 dB/min. This means that fluid accumulation could slow down the exchange of body electrolytes up to twice less the rate on an unaffected contralateral part of the body. Monitoring these changes by observing the average rate of change of a galvanic coupled signal attenuation on the affected body part can be used for diagnosing early developments of oedema in the body and for evaluating recovery in response to treatment procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: lymphoedema; body fluid flow; galvanic coupling; body area network lymphoedema; body fluid flow; galvanic coupling; body area network
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Asogwa, C.O.; Aryo Bay, J.; Mclaughlin, P.; Collins, S.F.; Lai, D.T.H. A Galvanic Intrabody Method for Assessing Fluid Flow in Unilateral Lymphoedema. Electronics 2017, 6, 47.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Electronics EISSN 2079-9292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top