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Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 93-109; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020093

Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products

1
Investigação em Farmácia, Centro de Investigação em Saúde e Ambiente (CISA), Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto/Instituto Politécnico do Porto (ESTSP/IPP), Rua Valente Perfeito, 322, 4400-330 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
2
LEPABE — Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enzo Berardesca
Received: 1 March 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
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Abstract

Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal), aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available. View Full-Text
Keywords: galaxolide; dermal exposure risk; children; personal care products; QuEChERS; HPLC-fluorescence galaxolide; dermal exposure risk; children; personal care products; QuEChERS; HPLC-fluorescence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Correia, P.; Cruz, A.; Santos, L.; Alves, A. Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products. Cosmetics 2015, 2, 93-109.

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