Next Article in Journal
The Status of Industrial Ecology in Australia: Barriers and Enablers
Next Article in Special Issue
Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland
Previous Article in Journal
Recycling Potentials of Critical Metals-Analyzing Secondary Flows from Selected Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Revisiting Rebound Effects from Material Resource Use. Indications for Germany Considering Social Heterogeneity
Resources 2014, 3(1), 319-339; doi:10.3390/resources3010319
Article

Global Patterns of Material Flows and their Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications: A MFA Study on All Countries World-Wide from 1980 to 2009

1,* , 2
, 1
 and 1
Received: 17 December 2013; in revised form: 8 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
Download PDF [1394 KB, uploaded 18 March 2014]
Abstract: This paper assesses world-wide patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption and productivity based on a new data set for economy-wide material flows, covering used materials for all countries world-wide between 1980 and 2009. We show that global material extraction has grown by more than 90% over the past 30 years and is reaching almost 70 billion tonnes today. Also, trade volumes in physical terms have increased by a factor of 2.5 over the past 30 years, and in 2009, 9.3 billion tonnes of raw materials and products were traded around the globe. China has turned into the biggest consumer of materials world-wide and together with the US, India, Brazil and Russia, consumes more than 50% of all globally extracted materials. We also show that the per-capita consumption levels are very uneven, with a factor of more than 60 between the country with the lowest and highest consumption in 2009. On average, each human being consumed 10 tonnes of materials in 2009, 2 tonnes more than in 1980. We discuss whether decoupling of economies’ growth from resource use has occurred and analyse interrelations of material use with human development. Finally, we elaborate on key environmental problems related to various material groups.
Keywords: de-coupling; economy-wide material flow accounting (EW-MFA); material consumption; material productivity; physical trade de-coupling; economy-wide material flow accounting (EW-MFA); material consumption; material productivity; physical trade
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Giljum, S.; Dittrich, M.; Lieber, M.; Lutter, S. Global Patterns of Material Flows and their Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications: A MFA Study on All Countries World-Wide from 1980 to 2009. Resources 2014, 3, 319-339.

AMA Style

Giljum S, Dittrich M, Lieber M, Lutter S. Global Patterns of Material Flows and their Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications: A MFA Study on All Countries World-Wide from 1980 to 2009. Resources. 2014; 3(1):319-339.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giljum, Stefan; Dittrich, Monika; Lieber, Mirko; Lutter, Stephan. 2014. "Global Patterns of Material Flows and their Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications: A MFA Study on All Countries World-Wide from 1980 to 2009." Resources 3, no. 1: 319-339.


Resources EISSN 2079-9276 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert