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Biology 2012, 1(2), 134-164; doi:10.3390/biology1020134
Review

Breaking Barriers to an AIDS Model with Macaque-Tropic HIV-1 Derivatives

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Received: 16 May 2012; in revised form: 14 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 5 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Molecular Biology of HIV)
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Abstract: The development of an animal model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)/AIDS that is suitable for preclinical testing of antiretroviral therapy, vaccines, curative strategies, and studies of pathogenesis has been hampered by the human-specific tropism of HIV-1. Although simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or HIV-1/SIV chimeric viruses (SHIVs)-rhesus macaque models are excellent surrogates for AIDS research, the genetic differences between SIV or SHIV and HIV-1 limit their utility as model systems. The identification of innate retroviral restriction factors has increased our understanding about blockades to HIV-1 replication in macaques and provided a guide for the construction of macaque-tropic HIV-1 clones. However, while these viruses replicate in macaque cells in vitro, they are easily controlled and have not caused AIDS in host animals, indicating that we may not fully understand the restrictive barriers of innate immunity. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding HIV-1 restriction factors, particularly as they apply to cross-species transmission of primate lentiviruses and the development of a macaque model of HIV-1/AIDS.
Keywords: HIV-1; SIV; Macaca nemestrina; AIDS; cross-species; tropism; innate restriction HIV-1; SIV; Macaca nemestrina; AIDS; cross-species; tropism; innate restriction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Thippeshappa, R.; Ruan, H.; Kimata, J.T. Breaking Barriers to an AIDS Model with Macaque-Tropic HIV-1 Derivatives. Biology 2012, 1, 134-164.

AMA Style

Thippeshappa R, Ruan H, Kimata JT. Breaking Barriers to an AIDS Model with Macaque-Tropic HIV-1 Derivatives. Biology. 2012; 1(2):134-164.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thippeshappa, Rajesh; Ruan, Hongmei; Kimata, Jason T. 2012. "Breaking Barriers to an AIDS Model with Macaque-Tropic HIV-1 Derivatives." Biology 1, no. 2: 134-164.


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