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Dynamic Post-Transcriptional Regulation of HIV-1 Gene Expression
Laboratory of Molecular Virology, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Padriciano, Trieste 99 34012, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2012; in revised form: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 3 July 2012
Abstract: Gene expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a highly regulated process. Basal transcription of the integrated provirus generates early transcripts that encode for the viral products Tat and Rev. Tat promotes the elongation of RNA polymerase while Rev mediates the nuclear export of viral RNAs that contain the Rev-responsive RNA element (RRE). These RNAs are exported from the nucleus to allow expression of Gag-Pol and Env proteins and for the production of full-length genomic RNAs. A balance exists between completely processed mRNAs and RRE-containing RNAs. Rev functions as an adaptor that recruits cellular factors to re-direct singly spliced and unspliced viral RNAs to nuclear export. The aim of this review is to address the dynamic regulation of this post-transcriptional pathway in light of recent findings that implicate several novel cellular cofactors of Rev function.
Keywords: HIV-1; RNA; transcription; splicing; Rev
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kula, A.; Marcello, A. Dynamic Post-Transcriptional Regulation of HIV-1 Gene Expression. Biology 2012, 1, 116-133.
Kula A, Marcello A. Dynamic Post-Transcriptional Regulation of HIV-1 Gene Expression. Biology. 2012; 1(2):116-133.
Kula, Anna; Marcello, Alessandro. 2012. "Dynamic Post-Transcriptional Regulation of HIV-1 Gene Expression." Biology 1, no. 2: 116-133.