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Fibers, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2014), Pages 187-263

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial The Fibrous Form Confers Unique Properties on Materials
Fibers 2014, 2(3), 240-241; doi:10.3390/fib2030240
Received: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 20 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
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Abstract
The main distinguishing feature of the fiber is simply that it is a particle where the ratio of length to width ratio is very large. This provides connectivity between two relatively remote areas. Such linkage may confer strength through physical linkage or [...] Read more.
The main distinguishing feature of the fiber is simply that it is a particle where the ratio of length to width ratio is very large. This provides connectivity between two relatively remote areas. Such linkage may confer strength through physical linkage or may relate primarily to information transfer. In the inorganic world, fibers can originate as a result of the process by which the solid material is condensed from the corresponding liquid form. Man-made fibrous materials are essentially polymers of a single or several molecular species repeated many times, or, in the case of metals, chains of elemental atoms. A host of man-made fibers have been developed in the last 50 years. A large range of uses has been found for these products. These include clothing, upholstery, fiber optic cables, filters, insulation, electromagnetic screening, and boat and aircraft construction. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Preliminary Study of Linear Density, Tenacity, and Crystallinity of Cotton Fibers
Fibers 2014, 2(3), 211-220; doi:10.3390/fib2030211
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 26 June 2014 / Published: 14 July 2014
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Abstract
An investigation of the relationships among fiber linear density, tenacity, and structure is important to help cotton breeders modify varieties for enhanced fiber end-use qualities. This study employed the Stelometer instrument, which is the traditional fiber tenacity reference method and might still [...] Read more.
An investigation of the relationships among fiber linear density, tenacity, and structure is important to help cotton breeders modify varieties for enhanced fiber end-use qualities. This study employed the Stelometer instrument, which is the traditional fiber tenacity reference method and might still be an option as a rapid screening tool because of its low cost and portable attributes. In addition to flat bundle break force and weight variables from a routine Stelometer test, the number of fibers in the bundle were counted manually and the fiber crystallinity (CIIR) was characterized by the previously proposed attenuated total reflection-sampling device based Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) protocol. Based on the plots of either tenacity vs. linear density or fiber count vs. mass, the fibers were subjectively divided into fine or coarse sets, respectively. Relative to the distinctive increase in fiber tenacity with linear density, there was an unclear trend between the linear density and CIIR for these fibers. Samples with similar linear density were found to increase in tenacity with fiber CIIR. In general, Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) fineness increases with fiber linear density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Impregnated Inorganic Nanoparticles on the Properties of the Kenaf Bast Fibers
Fibers 2014, 2(3), 242-254; doi:10.3390/fib2030242
Received: 10 June 2014 / Revised: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 July 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (8217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the properties of the chemically retted kenaf bast fiber impregnated with the inorganic nanoparticles. High quality kenaf bast fibers were obtained from a chemical retting process. An in situ inorganic nanoparticle impregnation (INI) process [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the properties of the chemically retted kenaf bast fiber impregnated with the inorganic nanoparticles. High quality kenaf bast fibers were obtained from a chemical retting process. An in situ inorganic nanoparticle impregnation (INI) process was used to introduce the CaCO3 nanoparticles into the retted kenaf bast fibers. It was found that some of the lignin-based components in the retted fibers were further removed during the INI treatment. From the characterization results, the inorganic nanoparticles CaCO3, with different shapes and sizes, appeared at the surface of the impregnated fiber after treatment. Heterogeneous CaCO3 nanoparticle distribution was observed on the INI treated fibers. The CaCO3 contents were different at different locations along the impregnated fiber. The presence of CaCO3 inorganic nanoparticles at the fiber surface increased the root mean square (RMS) surface roughness by 5.8% and decreased the hydrophilic nature of the retted fibers, evidenced by a 59.4% decrease in adhesion force between the fiber and hydrophilic AFM tip. In addition, the impregnation of CaCO3 dramatically increased the Young’s modulus of the fiber by 344%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Supramolecular Structure and Renaturation of a (1→3)-β-d-Glucan Compared with Curdlan and Scleroglucan
Fibers 2014, 2(3), 255-263; doi:10.3390/fib2030255
Received: 26 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
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Abstract
A (1→3)-β-d-Glucan produced by Lactobacillus suebicus CUPV221 strain was investigated by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM), to compare its supramolecular structure and conformation with two commercial polysaccharides: curdlan and scleroglucan. It was found that the β-d-Glucan was a (1→3)(1→2)-β-d-Glucan and at [...] Read more.
A (1→3)-β-d-Glucan produced by Lactobacillus suebicus CUPV221 strain was investigated by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM), to compare its supramolecular structure and conformation with two commercial polysaccharides: curdlan and scleroglucan. It was found that the β-d-Glucan was a (1→3)(1→2)-β-d-Glucan and at room temperature formed three-dimensional networks by entanglements between strands, as does scleroglucan. However, (1→3)(1→2)-β-d-Glucan strands seemed to be more stiff than those of scleroglucan. It was also observed that curdlan samples deposited from 5 mM NaOH aqueous solution showed supermolecular assemblies, recognized in the literature as micelles, which are controlled by hydrophobic hydration. The (1→3)(1→2)-β-d-Glucan in alkaline aqueous solutions produced different supramolecular structures depending on pH, and at 0.4 M NaOH (pH 13.16), denaturation took place. After neutralizing the alkaline solution with HCl, the formation of short linear, circular, and hairpin structures was observed. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Role of the Protein Corona in Fiber Structure-Activity Relationships
Fibers 2014, 2(3), 187-210; doi:10.3390/fib2030187
Received: 2 May 2014 / Revised: 7 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 30 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When nanomaterials enter biological fluids, they are immediately covered by biomolecules, particularly proteins, forming the so-called protein corona. The dynamic nature and complexity of the protein corona can impact upon the biological effects and distribution of nanomaterials with an organism. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
When nanomaterials enter biological fluids, they are immediately covered by biomolecules, particularly proteins, forming the so-called protein corona. The dynamic nature and complexity of the protein corona can impact upon the biological effects and distribution of nanomaterials with an organism. Therefore, the protein corona is an important factor in determining the biological impact of any nanomaterials. The protein adsorption pattern is determined by various factors, including the bio-fluids’ protein composition, the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties, as well as the time and type of exposure. Predominantly, research has focused upon spherical nano-objects, however, due to their ever-increasing potential use within human based applications, and, therefore, heightening and inevitable exposure to the human body, little is known regarding how proteins interact with nanofibers. Therefore, the present review focuses on the current knowledge as to how the geometry of man-made (nano)fibers, carbon nanotubes (in comparison with asbestos fibers), affects their interaction with proteins within biological fluids. Summarizing state-of the art methodologies applied to dissect protein-binding signatures, it is further discussed whether the protein corona composition of fibrous and non-fibrous materials differ, as well as what impact the protein corona has on (nano)fiber uptake, intracellular distribution and their subsequent toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibres: Friend or Foe?)
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Open AccessReview Bioceramic Nanofibres by Electrospinning
Fibers 2014, 2(3), 221-239; doi:10.3390/fib2030221
Received: 20 July 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds offer great promise for improved tissue integration and regeneration by their physical and chemical property enhancements. Electrospinning is a versatile bottom-up technique for producing porous 3D nanofibrous scaffolds that could closely mimic the structure of extracellular matrix. Much [...] Read more.
Nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds offer great promise for improved tissue integration and regeneration by their physical and chemical property enhancements. Electrospinning is a versatile bottom-up technique for producing porous 3D nanofibrous scaffolds that could closely mimic the structure of extracellular matrix. Much work has been committed to the development of this process through the years, and the resultant nanostructures have been subjugated to a wide range of applications in the field of bioengineering. In particular, the application of ceramic nanofibres in hard tissue engineering, such as dental and bone regeneration, is of increased research interest. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the bioceramic nanofibre scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning and highlights some of the significant process developments over recent years with their probable future trends and potential applications as biomedical implants. Full article
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