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Fibers, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 108-186

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Diesel Exhaust After-Treatment by Silicon Carbide Fiber Filter
Fibers 2014, 2(2), 128-141; doi:10.3390/fib2020128
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 26 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To reduce particulate matter (PM) in diesel exhaust gas, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed. The thermal durability of existing platinum catalyst-supported DPFs is inadequate. We are focusing on a non-catalytic after-treatment of silicon carbide (SiC) fibers with highly thermal durability.
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To reduce particulate matter (PM) in diesel exhaust gas, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed. The thermal durability of existing platinum catalyst-supported DPFs is inadequate. We are focusing on a non-catalytic after-treatment of silicon carbide (SiC) fibers with highly thermal durability. In this study, we simulated the processes of soot deposition and oxidation. Results show that even in exhaust gas without soot, a complex flow pattern is observed. The porosity of the filter is not constant along the flow direction, and the pressure gradient varies. The friction factor is slightly larger than the predicted value by the empirical equation in uniform porous media flow. Since the soot deposition occurs inside the filter, the depth filtration by SiC fibers was confirmed. In addition, the effects of filter temperature and oxygen concentration are clearly revealed. That is, comparing the oxidation at 700 °C, the deposited soot amount at 1200 and 1400 °C is decreased by 60% and 92%, respectively. Raising the oxygen concentration from 10% to 20% increases the oxidation efficiency from 42% to 64%. Although more work is needed over a wide range of operating conditions, a combination of these two parameters is important to achieve the non-catalytic exhaust after-treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ultra-High Sensitive Strain Sensor Based on Post-Processed Optical Fiber Bragg Grating
Fibers 2014, 2(2), 142-149; doi:10.3390/fib2020142
Received: 28 December 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An ultra-high sensitive strain sensor is proposed. The sensing head, based on the post-processing of a fiber Bragg grating, is used to perform passive and active strain measurements. Both wavelength and full width half maximum dependences with the applied strain are studied for
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An ultra-high sensitive strain sensor is proposed. The sensing head, based on the post-processing of a fiber Bragg grating, is used to perform passive and active strain measurements. Both wavelength and full width half maximum dependences with the applied strain are studied for the passive sensor, where maximum sensitivities of 104.1 pm/µε and 61.6 pm/µε are respectively obtained. When combining the high performance of this sensor with a ring laser cavity configuration, the Bragg grating will act as a filter and high resolution measurements can be performed. With the proposed sensor, a resolution of 700 nε is achieved. Full article
Open AccessArticle Side-Detecting Optical Fiber Doped with Tb3+ for Ultraviolet Sensor Application
Fibers 2014, 2(2), 150-157; doi:10.3390/fib2020150
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 30 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 16 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the article a novel construction of a side-detecting luminescent optical fiber for an UV sensor application has been presented. In the fiber, structure phosphate glass doped with 0.5 mol% Tb3+ ions was used as a UV sensitive core/ribbon. The luminescence spectrum
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In the article a novel construction of a side-detecting luminescent optical fiber for an UV sensor application has been presented. In the fiber, structure phosphate glass doped with 0.5 mol% Tb3+ ions was used as a UV sensitive core/ribbon. The luminescence spectrum of glass and the optical fiber was measured under UV excitation using a deuterium lamp. It was found that  large energy gap between upper (metastable) and lower (ground) levels of terbium ions incorporated in phosphate matrix leads to the effective emission at wavelengths of 489, 543, 586 and 621 nm, which correspond to 5D47FJ, (J = 3, 4, 5, 6) transitions respectively. Phosphate glass doped with optimal (the strongest VIS emission) concentration of Tb3+ (0.5 mol%) was used as the active core/ribbon in the construction of UV side-detecting optical fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)

Review

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Open AccessReview Release of Carbon Nanotubes from Polymer Nanocomposites
Fibers 2014, 2(2), 108-127; doi:10.3390/fib2020108
Received: 11 February 2014 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 21 March 2014 / Published: 28 March 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer nanocomposites have superior properties compared to the neat polymer matrix. They now are widely used in industry, but questions have been raised about the risks of such materials since CNTs can be toxic when inhaled. For a risk assessment of
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Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer nanocomposites have superior properties compared to the neat polymer matrix. They now are widely used in industry, but questions have been raised about the risks of such materials since CNTs can be toxic when inhaled. For a risk assessment of CNT nanocomposites, it is crucial to know whether CNTs from nanocomposites can be released into the environment or if they remain embedded in the matrix. This review article summarizes the studies that investigated the release of CNTs from nanocomposites during the service life. Three scenarios are reviewed, the release of particles due to mechanical impact, the release due to weathering processes, and the release due to fire. A release during composite production and disposal is not incorporated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibres: Friend or Foe?)
Open AccessReview High Strength and High Modulus Electrospun Nanofibers
Fibers 2014, 2(2), 158-186; doi:10.3390/fib2020158
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (1521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrospinning is a rapidly growing polymer processing technology as it provides a viable and simple method to create ultra-fine continuous fibers. This paper presents an in-depth review of the mechanical properties of electrospun fibers and particularly focuses on methodologies to generate high strength
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Electrospinning is a rapidly growing polymer processing technology as it provides a viable and simple method to create ultra-fine continuous fibers. This paper presents an in-depth review of the mechanical properties of electrospun fibers and particularly focuses on methodologies to generate high strength and high modulus nanofibers. As such, it aims to provide some guidance to future research activities in the area of high performance electrospun fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibres: Friend or Foe?)
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