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Coatings 2014, 4(1), 139-159; doi:10.3390/coatings4010139

Biomedical Nanoparticles: Overview of Their Surface Immune-Compatibility

Center for MicroBioRobotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Italy
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Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 8 January 2014 / Accepted: 30 January 2014 / Published: 12 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Medical Device Coatings)
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Abstract

Diagnostic- and therapeutic release-aimed nanoparticles require the highest degree of biocompatibility. Some physical and chemical characteristics of such nanomaterials are often at odds with this requirement. For instance, metals with specific features used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging need particular coatings to improve their blood solubility and increase their biocompatibility. Other examples come from the development of nanocarriers exploiting the different characteristics of two or more materials, i.e., the ability to encapsulate a certain drug by one core-material and the targeting capability of a different coating surface. Furthermore, all these “human-non-self” modifications necessitate proofs of compatibility with the immune system to avoid inflammatory reactions and resultant adverse effects for the patient. In the present review we discuss the molecular interactions and responses of the immune system to the principal nanoparticle surface modifications used in nanomedicine.
Keywords: immune system; nanomaterials; immunogenicity; immunotoxicity; biodistribution; mononuclear phagocytic cells; surface modifications immune system; nanomaterials; immunogenicity; immunotoxicity; biodistribution; mononuclear phagocytic cells; surface modifications
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gamucci, O.; Bertero, A.; Gagliardi, M.; Bardi, G. Biomedical Nanoparticles: Overview of Their Surface Immune-Compatibility. Coatings 2014, 4, 139-159.

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