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Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 267-298; doi:10.3390/antibiotics4030267

Antimicrobial Resistance and Reduced Susceptibility in Clostridium difficile: Potential Consequences for Induction, Treatment, and Recurrence of C. difficile Infection

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
2
Leeds Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3
Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, The General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yung-Fu Chang
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 2 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridium difficile Infection)
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Abstract

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a substantial burden on healthcare systems and is likely to remain so given our reliance on antimicrobial therapies to treat bacterial infections, especially in an aging population in whom multiple co-morbidities are common. Antimicrobial agents are a key component in the aetiology of CDI, both in the establishment of the infection and also in its treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarise the role of antimicrobial agents in primary and recurrent CDI; assessing why certain antimicrobial classes may predispose to the induction of CDI according to a balance between antimicrobial activity against the gut microflora and C. difficile. Considering these aspects of CDI is important in both the prevention of the infection and in the development of new antimicrobial treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clostridium difficile; antimicrobial agents; resistance; reduced susceptibility; recurrence Clostridium difficile; antimicrobial agents; resistance; reduced susceptibility; recurrence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baines, S.D.; Wilcox, M.H. Antimicrobial Resistance and Reduced Susceptibility in Clostridium difficile: Potential Consequences for Induction, Treatment, and Recurrence of C. difficile Infection. Antibiotics 2015, 4, 267-298.

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