Antibiotics 2013, 2(4), 500-534; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2040500
Review

Pipeline of Known Chemical Classes of Antibiotics

1 Graduate Program in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Technology Center, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), EQ/UFRJ, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco E, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro-RJ 21949-900, Brazil 2 Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property, INPI/Rua Mayrink Veiga No. 9/19 andar, CEP 20090-910, Rio de Janeiro-RJ 20090-910, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2013; in revised form: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)
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Abstract: Many approaches are used to discover new antibiotic compounds, one of the most widespread being the chemical modification of known antibiotics. This type of discovery has been so important in the development of new antibiotics that most antibiotics used today belong to the same chemical classes as antibiotics discovered in the 1950s and 1960s. Even though the discovery of new classes of antibiotics is urgently needed, the chemical modification of antibiotics in known classes is still widely used to discover new antibiotics, resulting in a great number of compounds in the discovery and clinical pipeline that belong to existing classes. In this scenario, the present article presents an overview of the R&D pipeline of new antibiotics in known classes of antibiotics, from discovery to clinical trial, in order to map out the technological trends in this type of antibiotic R&D, aiming to identify the chemical classes attracting most interest, their spectrum of activity, and the new subclasses under development. The result of the study shows that the new antibiotics in the pipeline belong to the following chemical classes: quinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolides, oxazolidinones, tetracyclines, pleuromutilins, beta-lactams, lipoglycopeptides, polymyxins and cyclic lipopeptides.
Keywords: antibacterial; antibiotic; clinical trials; R&D

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MDPI and ACS Style

de Souza Mendes, C.D.; de Souza Antunes, A.M. Pipeline of Known Chemical Classes of Antibiotics. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 500-534.

AMA Style

de Souza Mendes CD, de Souza Antunes AM. Pipeline of Known Chemical Classes of Antibiotics. Antibiotics. 2013; 2(4):500-534.

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Souza Mendes, Cristina D.; de Souza Antunes, Adelaide M. 2013. "Pipeline of Known Chemical Classes of Antibiotics." Antibiotics 2, no. 4: 500-534.

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