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Antibiotics 2013, 2(4), 485-499; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2040485
Article

Influence of Sterilized Human Fecal Extract on the Sensitivity of Salmonella enterica ATCC 13076 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 to Enrofloxacin

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Received: 1 August 2013; in revised form: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 November 2013 / Published: 2 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)
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Abstract: There is much debate on whether continuous exposure of commensal bacteria and potential pathogens residing in the human intestinal tract to low levels of antimicrobial agents from treated food animals pose a public health concern. To investigate antimicrobial effects on bacteria under colonic conditions, we studied resistance development in Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes exposed to enrofloxacin in the presence of fecal extract. The bacteria were incubated at 37 °C in Mueller-Hinton broth, with and without 0.01~0.5 μg/mL enrofloxacin, in the presence and absence of sucrose, and with 1% or 2.5% filter-sterilized fecal extract, for three passages. In the second and third passages, only the bacteria incubated in the media containing sterilized fecal extract grew in 0.5 μg/mL of enrofloxacin. Fecal extract (1% and 2.5%) decreased the sensitivity of S. enterica to enrofloxacin in the medium containing the efflux pump inhibitors reserpine and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and affected the accumulation of ethidium bromide (EtBr) in this bacterium. Enrofloxacin (0.06 µg/mL) and fecal extract altered the composition of fatty acids in S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. We conclude that fecal extract decreased the susceptibilities of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes to concentrations of enrofloxacin higher than the MIC and resulted in rapid resistance selection.
Keywords: fluoroquinolone; enrofloxacin; sterilized human fecal extract; Salmonella; Listeria fluoroquinolone; enrofloxacin; sterilized human fecal extract; Salmonella; Listeria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahn, Y.; Stuckey, R.; Sung, K.; Rafii, F.; Cerniglia, C.E. Influence of Sterilized Human Fecal Extract on the Sensitivity of Salmonella enterica ATCC 13076 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 to Enrofloxacin. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 485-499.

AMA Style

Ahn Y, Stuckey R, Sung K, Rafii F, Cerniglia CE. Influence of Sterilized Human Fecal Extract on the Sensitivity of Salmonella enterica ATCC 13076 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 to Enrofloxacin. Antibiotics. 2013; 2(4):485-499.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahn, Youngbeom; Stuckey, Ryan; Sung, Kidon; Rafii, Fatemeh; Cerniglia, Carl E. 2013. "Influence of Sterilized Human Fecal Extract on the Sensitivity of Salmonella enterica ATCC 13076 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 to Enrofloxacin." Antibiotics 2, no. 4: 485-499.


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