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Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 274-287; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020274
Article

Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)

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Received: 7 March 2013; in revised form: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 21 May 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environmental Footprint of Antibiotics)
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Abstract: This study presents the evaluation of seven pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different commonly used therapeutic classes in seawater samples from coastal areas of Gran Canaria Island. The target compounds include atenolol (antihypertensive), acetaminophen (analgesic), norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (antibiotics), carbamazepine (antiepileptic) and ketoprofen and diclofenac (anti-inflammatory). Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the extraction and preconcentration of the samples, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the determination of the compounds. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries obtained were in the range of 78.3% to 98.2%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 11.8%. The detection and quantification limits of the method were in the ranges of 0.1–2.8 and 0.3–9.3 ng·L−1, respectively. The developed method was applied to evaluate the presence of these pharmaceutical compounds in seawater from four outfalls in Gran Canaria Island (Spain) during one year. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found in a large number of samples in a concentration range of 9.0–3551.7 ng·L−1. Low levels of diclofenac, acetaminophen and ketoprofen were found sporadically.
Keywords: pharmaceutical compounds; SPE; LC-MS/MS; seawater; outfall pharmaceutical compounds; SPE; LC-MS/MS; seawater; outfall
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Afonso-Olivares, C.; Torres-Padrón, M.E.; Sosa-Ferrera, Z.; Santana-Rodríguez, J.J. Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Antibiotics 2013, 2, 274-287.

AMA Style

Afonso-Olivares C, Torres-Padrón ME, Sosa-Ferrera Z, Santana-Rodríguez JJ. Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Antibiotics. 2013; 2(2):274-287.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Torres-Padrón, Mª E.; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José J. 2013. "Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)." Antibiotics 2, no. 2: 274-287.


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