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Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 274-287; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020274

Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)

Departamento de Química, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 35017, Spain
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Received: 7 March 2013 / Revised: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 21 May 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environmental Footprint of Antibiotics)
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Abstract

This study presents the evaluation of seven pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different commonly used therapeutic classes in seawater samples from coastal areas of Gran Canaria Island. The target compounds include atenolol (antihypertensive), acetaminophen (analgesic), norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (antibiotics), carbamazepine (antiepileptic) and ketoprofen and diclofenac (anti-inflammatory). Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the extraction and preconcentration of the samples, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the determination of the compounds. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries obtained were in the range of 78.3% to 98.2%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 11.8%. The detection and quantification limits of the method were in the ranges of 0.1–2.8 and 0.3–9.3 ng·L−1, respectively. The developed method was applied to evaluate the presence of these pharmaceutical compounds in seawater from four outfalls in Gran Canaria Island (Spain) during one year. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found in a large number of samples in a concentration range of 9.0–3551.7 ng·L−1. Low levels of diclofenac, acetaminophen and ketoprofen were found sporadically. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmaceutical compounds; SPE; LC-MS/MS; seawater; outfall pharmaceutical compounds; SPE; LC-MS/MS; seawater; outfall
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Afonso-Olivares, C.; Torres-Padrón, M.E.; Sosa-Ferrera, Z.; Santana-Rodríguez, J.J. Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Antibiotics 2013, 2, 274-287.

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