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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070514

Direct-Continuous Preparation of Nanostructured Titania-Silica Using Surfactant-Free Non-Scaffold Rice Starch Template

1
Centre of Foundation Studies UiTM, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Dengkil, Dengkil 43800, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract

The conventional synthesis route of nanostructured titania-silica (Ti-SiNS) based on sol-gel requires the use of a surfactant-type template that suffers from hazardous risks, environmental concerns, and a tedious stepwise process. Alternatively, biomaterials have been introduced as an indirect template, but still required for pre-suspended scaffold structures, which hinder their practical application. Herein, we report an easy and industrially viable direct-continuous strategy for the preparation of Ti-SiNS from nanostructured-silica (SiNS) using a hydrolyzed rice starch template. This strategy fits into the conventional industrial process flow, as it allows starch to be used directly in time-effective and less complicated steps, with the potential to upscale. The formation of Ti-SiNS is mainly attributed to Ti attachment in the SiNS frameworks after the polycondensation of the sol-gel composition under acidic-media. The SiNS had pseudo-spherical morphology (nanoparticles with the size of 13 to 22 nm), short order crystal structure (amorphous) and high surface area (538.74 m2·g−1). The functionalized SiNS into Ti-SiNS delivered considerable catalytic activity for epoxidation of 1-naphtol into 1,4-naphthoquinone. The described direct-continuous preparation shows great promise for a cheap, green, and efficient synthesis of Ti-SiNS for advanced applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanostructured silica; surfactant-free; non-scaffold template; direct-continuous preparation; sol-gel synthesis nanostructured silica; surfactant-free; non-scaffold template; direct-continuous preparation; sol-gel synthesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Matmin, J.; Affendi, I.; Endud, S. Direct-Continuous Preparation of Nanostructured Titania-Silica Using Surfactant-Free Non-Scaffold Rice Starch Template. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 514.

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