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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050349

Graphene-Based Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering in the Dental Field

1
Department of Neurosciences, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
3
Maria Pia Hospital, GVM Care & Research, 10132 Torino, Italy
4
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
5
Department Materials Science and Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 060032 Bucharest, Romania
6
Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM Care & Research, 48033 Ravenna, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 20 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Nanomedicine)
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Abstract

The world of dentistry is approaching graphene-based nanomaterials as substitutes for tissue engineering. Apart from its exceptional mechanical strength, electrical conductivity and thermal stability, graphene and its derivatives can be functionalized with several bioactive molecules. They can also be incorporated into different scaffolds used in regenerative dentistry, generating nanocomposites with improved characteristics. This review presents the state of the art of graphene-based nanomaterial applications in the dental field. We first discuss the interactions between cells and graphene, summarizing the available in vitro and in vivo studies concerning graphene biocompatibility and cytotoxicity. We then highlight the role of graphene-based nanomaterials in stem cell control, in terms of adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Particular attention will be given to stem cells of dental origin, such as those isolated from dental pulp, periodontal ligament or dental follicle. The review then discusses the interactions between graphene-based nanomaterials with cells of the immune system; we also focus on the antibacterial activity of graphene nanomaterials. In the last section, we offer our perspectives on the various opportunities facing the use of graphene and its derivatives in associations with titanium dental implants, membranes for bone regeneration, resins, cements and adhesives as well as for tooth-whitening procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; nanomaterials; dental stem cells; antibacterial activity; dental implant; bone regeneration graphene; nanomaterials; dental stem cells; antibacterial activity; dental implant; bone regeneration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Guazzo, R.; Gardin, C.; Bellin, G.; Sbricoli, L.; Ferroni, L.; Ludovichetti, F.S.; Piattelli, A.; Antoniac, I.; Bressan, E.; Zavan, B. Graphene-Based Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering in the Dental Field. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 349.

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