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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050311

Characterization of Nanoparticle Batch-To-Batch Variability

1
Institute for Technical Chemistry (ITC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Institute for Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
3
Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
4
Institute for Technical Thermodynamics and Refrigeration (ITTK), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
5
Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Science, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
6
Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Claverton Down, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
7
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
8
Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 8502, Université Paris Sud 11, Université Paris Saclay, 91190 Saint-Aubin, France
9
Centre for BioNano Interactions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
10
Health Department, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2400 Mol, Belgium
11
Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
12
Science and Technology of Nanosystems (STN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
13
Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (LEM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
14
Faculty of Engineering, School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract

A central challenge for the safe design of nanomaterials (NMs) is the inherent variability of NM properties, both as produced and as they interact with and evolve in, their surroundings. This has led to uncertainty in the literature regarding whether the biological and toxicological effects reported for NMs are related to specific NM properties themselves, or rather to the presence of impurities or physical effects such as agglomeration of particles. Thus, there is a strong need for systematic evaluation of the synthesis and processing parameters that lead to potential variability of different NM batches and the reproducible production of commonly utilized NMs. The work described here represents over three years of effort across 14 European laboratories to assess the reproducibility of nanoparticle properties produced by the same and modified synthesis routes for four of the OECD priority NMs (silica dioxide, zinc oxide, cerium dioxide and titanium dioxide) as well as amine-modified polystyrene NMs, which are frequently employed as positive controls for nanotoxicity studies. For 46 different batches of the selected NMs, all physicochemical descriptors as prioritized by the OECD have been fully characterized. The study represents the most complete assessment of NMs batch-to-batch variability performed to date and provides numerous important insights into the potential sources of variability of NMs and how these might be reduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanosafety; particle size; impurities; reactive oxygen species nanosafety; particle size; impurities; reactive oxygen species
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mülhopt, S.; Diabaté, S.; Dilger, M.; Adelhelm, C.; Anderlohr, C.; Bergfeldt, T.; Gómez de la Torre, J.; Jiang, Y.; Valsami-Jones, E.; Langevin, D.; Lynch, I.; Mahon, E.; Nelissen, I.; Piella, J.; Puntes, V.; Ray, S.; Schneider, R.; Wilkins, T.; Weiss, C.; Paur, H.-R. Characterization of Nanoparticle Batch-To-Batch Variability. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 311.

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